Khiva, khanate of

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Khiva, khanate of,

former state of central Asia, based on the Khiva (Khwarazm or Khorezm) oasis along the Amu Darya River. The khanate lay S of the Aral Sea and included large areas of the Kyzyl Kum and Kara Kum deserts. Founded c.1511 as part of the Khwarazm state, Khiva rose in the late 16th cent. as a Muslim Uzbek state. It flourished in the early 19th cent. but was conquered by Russia in 1873; the khans subsequently continued to rule under Russian protection. Khiva's economy was based on agriculture, livestock breeding, brigandage, and handicrafts. The territory comprised the Khorezm Soviet People's Republic from 1920 to 1924, when the area was divided between the Uzbek SSR and the Turkmen SSR (now Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan). For earlier history, see KhwarazmKhwarazm
or Khorezm
, ancient and medieval state of central Asia, situated in and around the basin of the lower Amu Darya River; now a region, NW Uzbekistan. Khwarazm is one of the oldest centers of civilization in central Asia.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Long-distance import goods came to the Kama region from Central Asia by the northern branch of the Silk Road: from Sogd, Bukhara, Khwarezm, through the lower reaches of the Syr Darya (Dzhety-Asar culture), then by the Ural, Belaya, Iren rivers to the Sylva and further to the Kama (Goldina et al.
Today, Khwarezm belongs partly to Uzbekistan, partly to Kazakhstan, and partly to Turkmenistan.
He belonged to the Kubrawi order of Sufis founded by Shaikh Najm-ud-Din Kubra of Khwarezm. Shah-i-Hamadan came to Kashmir along with his 700 hundred followers, who settled in various parts of the valley and played a significant role in spreading the message of worldly and spiritual peace - one which was accepted by the people at large.
Special centers will operate at the Department of Internal Affairs of Bukhara, Samarkand, Khwarezm and Qashqadaryo regions.
Most of the architectural wonders in Multan city of Pakistan were built by the Turkmen artisans and engineers who were displaced after the fall of the Khwarezm Shah dynasty, whose seat of power was in the present-day Turkmenistan.
For example, Shah Ala ad-Din Muhammad II of Khwarezm lost his war with the Mongols and fled to an island in the Caspian Sea, where he soon died.
The Stories of the Prophets, completed by the judge Rabghuzi in Khwarezm in 1311, is one of a very few extant works in a form of written Turkish was emerging in Western Turkestan during the 13th and 14th centuries that would provide the basis for the further development of Turkish Islamic literature in Central Asia.
His ancestors migrated to Khwarezm where they embraced Islam.
"[Ahmad Ibrahim] bought half an ounce of poison and put it in all Saqqakhaneha of Khwarezm and the people of Khwarezm drank the water and immediately died and a wave of unrest ran in Khwarezm " (1: 317).
The 13th-century Shah of Khwarezm caused the eradication of his state by torturing and murdering ambassadors bearing a goodwill message from Genghis Khan.
Osh riots--Kirghizistan 1990 / 2010, Khwarezm, Karapalkastan) and we can register new migratory flows due to the differences generated by the border apparatus.