see KyakhtaKyakhta
or Kiakhta
, city, Buryat Republic, S Siberian Russia, near the Russian-Mongolian border. Kyakhta is on the highway from Ulan-Ude to Ulaanbaatar and is a major transit point for Russian-Mongolian trade. It has textile, lumber, and food-processing plants.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city, the center of Kiakhta Raion, Buriat ASSR. Situated on the border of the USSR with the Mongolian People’s Republic, 35 km east of the Naushki railroad station, it is linked by highways to Ulan-Ude (234 km). Population, 15,300 (1973).

Kiakhta was founded in 1727 and became a center for trade with China after the signing of the Bura Treaty of 1727. The Russo-Chinese Kiakhta Treaty of 1727 was concluded there. Kiakhta became a trading settlement in 1743, and in 1792 the customhouse was moved there from Irkutsk. Goods exported via Kiakhta to China included cloth, manufactured goods, fur articles, and Russian leather; imports from China were mainly tea. With the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railroad in 1903, Kiakhta lost its importance as the chief center for trade with China and became a center of Russian trade with Outer Mongolia. In 1915 the Kiakhta Agreement was signed in this city. Soviet power was established in Kiakhta in February 1918. The city was the center of the revolutionary activity of Sukhe-Bator and Choibalsan in 1920–21 and the site of the First Congress of the Mongolian People’s Party, held on Mar. 1, 1921. Kiakhta was the starting or terminal point of the travels of N. M. Przheval’skii, P. K. Kozlov, G. N. Potanin, A. V. Potanin, V. A. Obruchev, and other explorers of Central Asia.

Classical-style buildings erected in Kiakhta in the 19th century include the Troitskii Cathedral (1807–17), the Voskresen-skaia Church (1838), and a merchants’ arcade (mid-19th century). During the Soviet period there has been large-scale housing construction according to standard designs. Kiakhta is the site of a spinning and knitted goods factory, enterprises of the food industry, a medical school, the V. A. Obruchev Museum of Local Lore (founded in 1891), and the Sukhe-Bator Museum.


Tugutov, R. F. Proshloe i nastoiashchee goroda Kiakhty. Ulan-Ude, 1954.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Foust, Muscovite and Mandarin: Russia's Trade with China and Its Setting 1727-1805 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969), reviews Sino-Russian 18th-century trade, termed the "Kiakhta system." On Russian expansion into the Amur-Ussuri region in the mid-19th century, see also R.
His subsequent unsuccessful attack on the Red stronghold in the city of Kiakhta (back across the Russian border) culminated in his capture, trial and execution by the Bolsheviks.
In the spring of 1921, he set off for Red-ruled Transbaikalia, hoping to seize foodstuffs and raise his troops' spirits through purposeful action, but the campaign ended in disaster: pro-Communist Mongols routed his forces at Kiakhta on June 11-12, and two weeks later, the Red Army entered Urga.
Having melded with Mongolians after the Treaty of Kiakhta stopped movement between Siberia and Mongolia in 1727, the Buryats still a strong tie with Mongolia.
On the other hand, in case of Outer Mongolia the new Chinese Republican government under President Yuan Shi-kai failed in her attempt to reclaim Outer Mongolia as integral part of China and confirm the Russo-Mongolian treaty of 3rd November, 1912 in Sino-Russian Declaration of 5th November, 1913 and subsequent Kiakhta Tripartite Sino-Russo-Mongolian agreement of 1915 legitimized the Russia's diplomatic victory over the Mongolian issue.
31] China, via Kiakhta or Canton, often was the final destination of such skins.
Their profession of Christianity did not bar them from serving in such a sensitive position within the Imperial Guard.(53) That the opposition of Kangxi and his successors to Christianity was primarily political--fear of Western imperialism--rather than religious in nature is reflected in the Fifth Article of the Treaty of Kiakhta (1727) between Russia and China, which provided for the presence of several Russian Orthodox priests in Beijing and said that those attached to the congregation "will not be denied the right to pray and to honor their God in accordance with their faith."(54) Religious toleration, therefore, was the norm rather than the exception throughout most of Chinese history.