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, province (2010 pop. 44,567,475), c.66,000 sq mi (170,940 sq km), SE China. Nanchang is the capital. The largely hilly and mountainous surface is drained by many rivers; the longest is the navigable Gan, which flows NE to Poyang lake.
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a province in East China, on the right bank of the Yangtze River. Area, 160,000 sq km. Population, 22 million (1974). The capital is the city of Nanch’ang.
The interior of Kiangsi is a low-lying plain in the basin of P’oyang Hu; the areas along the borders are occupied by mountain ranges. Predominant elevations range from 300 to 900 m. The province has a subtropical monsoon climate, with a mean January temperature of 4°–10°C and a mean July temperature of 27°–30°C. Annual precipitation is 1,400–1,700 mm.
Kiangsi’s economy is based on agriculture, primarily land cultivation. More than 16 percent of the province is under cultivation, and approximately 80 percent of the arable land is irrigated. Rice, the principal crop, is grown in paddies that take up more than 85 percent of the arable land; two harvests are gathered every year. The principle rice-growing regions are the P’oyang Hu plain and the Kan Chiang valley. Other food crops are wheat, barley, sweet potato, legumes, tea, and citrus fruits; industrial crops are cotton, jute, ramie, tobacco, sugarcane, and oil-bearing plants. Animal husbandry is represented by swine raising and cattle raising, which includes the raising of water buffalo for work in the rice paddies. There is poultry raising, commercial fishing, and forestry.
The most highly developed industry is mining. Tungsten is mined in the southern part of the province (in the Tayü, Huich’-ang, and Anyüan regions), copper in the northeast and northwest, and uranium in the Shangyu area. The P’inghsiang Coalfield produces approximately 2 million tons annually, most of which is shipped to Wuhan. Lead, tin, zinc, molybdenum, manganese, and gold are also mined in Kiangsi.
Kiangsi has factories of the textile, machine-building, glass, paper, and chemical industries; most are concentrated in Nanch’-ang, which also has a small metallurgical plant. The province is renowned for its porcelain, which is produced mainly at Chingtechen, an ancient and world-famous center of porcelain production and the site of one of the nation’s largest porcelain factories.
P’oyang Hu, the Yangtze River, and the Kan Chiang are navigable.
I. M. FEDEROV
Some parts of Kiangsi belonged to the Wu, Yüeh, and Ch’u states between the seventh and fourth centuries B.C. In 334 B.C., Kiangsi became part of the Ch’u state; in the late third century B.C. it formed part of the Ch’in Empire and was known as Chiu-chiang District. Large numbers of Chinese began to settle the area in the fourth century A.D. From the seventh to ninth centuries Kiangsi was divided between the districts of Chiangnan and Huainan, and from the tenth to 13th centuries it was part of Chiuchiang District. Kiangsi Province, with its present boundaries, was formed after the Mongol conquest of China in the 13th century.
From 1853 to 1861 the northern areas of Kiangsi were controlled by the Taiping rebels. In 1861 the province was opened up to foreign trade. On Aug. 1, 1927, units of the National Revolutionary Army, led by Chinese Communists, rebelled in Nanch’-ang (seeNANCH’ANG UPRISING OF 1927). From 1930 to 1934, Kiangsi was a major base of operations of the soviet movement in China (seeSOVIETS IN CHINA). During the Chinese People’s National Liberation War Against the Japanese Invaders of 1937–45 (Sino-Japanese War), the province was occupied by Japanese troops. The People’s Liberation Army of China freed Kiangsi from Kuomintang rule in May and August 1949.
V. P. ILIUSHECHKIN