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, province (2010 pop. 78,659,903), c.41,000 sq mi (106,190 sq km), E China, on the Yellow Sea. Nanjing is the capital. Land and Economy
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a province in East China, along the lower course of the Yangtze River. It is washed by the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Area, 100,000 sq km. Population, 45.6 million (1974). Kiangsu has the highest average population density of any province in the People’s Republic of China. The capital is the city of Nanking.
Kiangsu, which occupies the southeastern part of the North China Plain, has a subtropical monsoon climate. The mean January temperature is –0.6°C in the north and 4°C in the south; the mean July temperature is 26°–29°C. Annual precipitation is 600–900 mm in the north and reaches 1,200 mm in the south.
Kiangsu, an economically developed industrial and agricultural region, accounted for approximately 6 percent of the country’s gross industrial output in 1972. The southern part of the province, which contains the cities of Nanking, Chenchiang, Ch’angchou, Wuhsi, Suchou, Yangchou, and Nant’ung, forms part of an important industrial region that includes Shanghai (administered directly by the central government), the northern part of Chekiang Province, and the central part of Anhwei Province. The traditional light industries, mainly the textile industry, are highly developed in the southern part of Kiangsu, as are metallurgy, machine building (including machine-tool building and shipbuilding), and the chemical and cement industries.
Coal is mined in the northern part of the province in the Suchow Coalfield, which produced an estimated 4 million tons in 1970. Iron ore is extracted in the province. Apatites are mined in the Hsinhailien region, and kaolin in the Ihsing region. The salt mined in the province accounts for one-fifth of the national output. Kiangsu has cottage industries and produces fine handicrafts, including porcelain and bamboo articles.
The province’s diversified agricultural sector is dominated by land cultivation: approximately 60 percent of the province is under cultivation. In order to regulate the regime of the rivers and to irrigate the fields, a large hydraulic engineering complex has been constructed that includes an extensive irrigation system and an artificial channel for the Huai Ho. Rice is grown primarily on the plain of the Yangtze River delta and in the basins of T’ai Hu and the Huai Ho. Other crops are wheat, barley, beans, maize, and sweet potato.
Kiangsu is a major cotton-growing and sericultural region, with silkworm cultivation concentrated near T’ai Hu. Some of the province’s land is devoted to vegetable growing. Animal husbandry is represented mainly by swine raising. There is poultry raising, commercial fishing, and the hunting of sea animals.
Kiangsu’s dense network of waterways includes rivers and canals, notably the Grand Canal. The Yangtze can accommodate oceangoing vessels. Nanch’ang has a large river port, and the seaport of Hsinhailien is located in the north.
I. M. FEDOROV
In antiquity, Kiangsu was inhabited by Man and Huaiyi tribes. Between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C. it belonged to the Ch’i, Wu, Yüeh, and Ch’u states, and in the late third century B.C. it was incorporated into the Ch’in Empire. In the seventh century A.D. the construction of the Grand Canal linked the province with North China. In the seventh and the early eighth century Kiangsu initially formed part of the districts of Chiangnan and Huainan and subsequently became part of Honan and Chiangche provinces.
In the mid-17tḣ century, after the Manchu conquest of China, Chiangnan District was formed in the region; the district was subsequently designated the province of Kiangsu, a name derived from the first syllables of the prefectures of Chiangning and Suchou. During the Anglo-Chinese War of 1840–42 (Opium War) the British Navy operated in Kiangsu on the lower course of the Yangtze. From 1853 to 1864 the southwestern areas of the province belonged to the Taiping state, as did the southern areas from 1860 to 1863.
Japanese troops occupied Kiangsu during the Chinese People’s National Liberation War Against the Japanese Invaders of 1937–45 (Sino-Japanese War). In late 1948 and early 1949 the People’s Liberation Army of China launched major operations—the Huaihai and Nanking-Shanghai offensives—against Kuomintang troops. The liberation of Kiangsu was completed by the beginning of June 1949.
V. P. ILIUSHECHKIN