Kiangsu


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Kiangsu:

see JiangsuJiangsu
or Kiangsu
, province (2010 pop. 78,659,903), c.41,000 sq mi (106,190 sq km), E China, on the Yellow Sea. Nanjing is the capital. Land and Economy
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, China.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kiangsu

 

a province in East China, along the lower course of the Yangtze River. It is washed by the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Area, 100,000 sq km. Population, 45.6 million (1974). Kiangsu has the highest average population density of any province in the People’s Republic of China. The capital is the city of Nanking.

Kiangsu, which occupies the southeastern part of the North China Plain, has a subtropical monsoon climate. The mean January temperature is –0.6°C in the north and 4°C in the south; the mean July temperature is 26°–29°C. Annual precipitation is 600–900 mm in the north and reaches 1,200 mm in the south.

Kiangsu, an economically developed industrial and agricultural region, accounted for approximately 6 percent of the country’s gross industrial output in 1972. The southern part of the province, which contains the cities of Nanking, Chenchiang, Ch’angchou, Wuhsi, Suchou, Yangchou, and Nant’ung, forms part of an important industrial region that includes Shanghai (administered directly by the central government), the northern part of Chekiang Province, and the central part of Anhwei Province. The traditional light industries, mainly the textile industry, are highly developed in the southern part of Kiangsu, as are metallurgy, machine building (including machine-tool building and shipbuilding), and the chemical and cement industries.

Coal is mined in the northern part of the province in the Suchow Coalfield, which produced an estimated 4 million tons in 1970. Iron ore is extracted in the province. Apatites are mined in the Hsinhailien region, and kaolin in the Ihsing region. The salt mined in the province accounts for one-fifth of the national output. Kiangsu has cottage industries and produces fine handicrafts, including porcelain and bamboo articles.

The province’s diversified agricultural sector is dominated by land cultivation: approximately 60 percent of the province is under cultivation. In order to regulate the regime of the rivers and to irrigate the fields, a large hydraulic engineering complex has been constructed that includes an extensive irrigation system and an artificial channel for the Huai Ho. Rice is grown primarily on the plain of the Yangtze River delta and in the basins of T’ai Hu and the Huai Ho. Other crops are wheat, barley, beans, maize, and sweet potato.

Kiangsu is a major cotton-growing and sericultural region, with silkworm cultivation concentrated near T’ai Hu. Some of the province’s land is devoted to vegetable growing. Animal husbandry is represented mainly by swine raising. There is poultry raising, commercial fishing, and the hunting of sea animals.

Kiangsu’s dense network of waterways includes rivers and canals, notably the Grand Canal. The Yangtze can accommodate oceangoing vessels. Nanch’ang has a large river port, and the seaport of Hsinhailien is located in the north.

I. M. FEDOROV

In antiquity, Kiangsu was inhabited by Man and Huaiyi tribes. Between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C. it belonged to the Ch’i, Wu, Yüeh, and Ch’u states, and in the late third century B.C. it was incorporated into the Ch’in Empire. In the seventh century A.D. the construction of the Grand Canal linked the province with North China. In the seventh and the early eighth century Kiangsu initially formed part of the districts of Chiangnan and Huainan and subsequently became part of Honan and Chiangche provinces.

In the mid-17tḣ century, after the Manchu conquest of China, Chiangnan District was formed in the region; the district was subsequently designated the province of Kiangsu, a name derived from the first syllables of the prefectures of Chiangning and Suchou. During the Anglo-Chinese War of 1840–42 (Opium War) the British Navy operated in Kiangsu on the lower course of the Yangtze. From 1853 to 1864 the southwestern areas of the province belonged to the Taiping state, as did the southern areas from 1860 to 1863.

Japanese troops occupied Kiangsu during the Chinese People’s National Liberation War Against the Japanese Invaders of 1937–45 (Sino-Japanese War). In late 1948 and early 1949 the People’s Liberation Army of China launched major operations—the Huaihai and Nanking-Shanghai offensives—against Kuomintang troops. The liberation of Kiangsu was completed by the beginning of June 1949.

V. P. ILIUSHECHKIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Jiangsu

, Kiangsu
a province of E China, on the Yellow Sea: consists mostly of the marshy delta of the Yangtze River, with some of China's largest cities and most densely populated areas. Capital: Nanjing. Pop.: 74 060 000 (2003 est.). Area: 102 200 sq. km (39 860 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The evidence is based on the writings of participants and later imperial histories Table 3 China's population by province, 1819-1953 (million) 1819 1893 1953 Provinces most affected by 153.9 101.8 145.3 Taiping rebellion (a) Provinces affected by Muslim 41.3 26.8 43.1 rebellions (b) Ten Other Provinces of China 175.6 240.9 338.6 Proper (c) Three Manchurian Provinces (d) 2.0 5.4 41.7 Sinkiang, Mongolia, Tibet, 6.4 11.8 14.0 Ningsia, Tsinghai Total 379.4 386.7 582.7 (a.) Anhwei, Chekiang, Hupei, Kiangsi, Kiangsu; (b.) Kansu, Shensi, Shansi; (c.) Fukien, Honan, Hopei, Hunan, Kwangsi, Kwangtung, Kweichow, Shantung, Szechwan and Yunnan; (d.) Heilungkiang, Kirin, Liaoning.
Manufacturers of frozen grilled eel from Taiwan prefer to set up operations in Kiangsu, Fukien and Kwangtung provinces.
Born into a prosperous family about 1490; he received a good education and obtained his doctorate degree in the civil service examinations (1517); following distinguished service as a civil and military administrator, he was appointed supreme commander of Nan Chihli (Kiangsu [Jiangsu], Anhwei [Anhui], Chekiang [Zhejiang]; and Fukien [Fujian] provinces in southeast China), an area much troubled by pirate raids; personally led an ambush of a large pirate force at Wang-chiang-ching in Chekiang (1555), routing them, and capturing 1,900, all of whom were beheaded; the main body escaped, and for this reason, and possibly because he had not been sufficiently deferential to the army inspector general the previous year, he was dismissed from his posts, arrested, tried, and executed.
Garnett of a Journey through the Provinces of Shantung and Kiangsu,' in Accounts and Papers 12 February to 28 August 1907 (London), 1-26.
42 See Ch'en T'ing-ching (1639-1710), "Wu Mei-ts'un hsien-sheng mu-piao," quoted from Feng Ch'i-yung and Yeh Chun-yuan, Wu Mei-ts'un nien-p'u (Yang-chou: Kiangsu ku-chi, 1990), 550.
The overall picture painted by Woodside seems not to match well the impression we derive from Barry Keenan's thickly documented article, "Lung-men Academy in Shanghai and the Expansion of Kiangsu's Educated Elite, 1865-1911." Therein the educated elite of the lower Yangtze region, though certainly not happy with government schools' narrow emphasis on preparation for the civil service examinations, appear to dismiss the center-oriented system and positively strive for more ethically substantive and pragmatically varied curricula, rightly under their own direction.
8); and Wu-hsing in Kiangsu, when it is in Chekiang (p.
Miyazaki Ichisada has called attention to a stone inscription from Kiangsu that contains the records of a 1228 case concerning the misappropriation of land belonging to the Su-chou prefectural school.(9) These records show the same assemblage of citations from statutes, edicts, and regulations that characterize the present document.
Born in Kiangsu (Jiangsu) into a successful merchant family engaged in the salt trade; with his brothers, led a rebellion against the tottering Mongol Yuan dynasty, and raised a large peasant army (1353); failed to take Yang-chou (1354), but captured Soochow and Hang-chow (Hangzhou) (1356) and established the Kingdom of Wu on the lower Yangtze, governing some ten million people from Soochow; the growing power of the nearby Ming rebels under Chu Yuan-chang forced him to submit nominally to the Mongols (1357), but he maintained his independence; formally rebelled by capturing Anfeng, and launched an attack on Chu (1363); when Chu counterattacked, Chang's forces were routed, and he fled to Nanking (Nanjing), where he committed suicide (1367).