Kiev

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Kiev

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Kyiv

(kē`ĕf, –ĕv), Ukrainian Kyyiv, Rus. Kiyev, city (1990 est. pop. 2,600,000) and municipality with the status of a region (oblast), capital of Ukraine and of Kiev region, a port on the Dnieper River. The largest city of Ukraine, Kiev is a leading industrial, commercial, and cultural center. Food processing (notably the processing of beet sugar), metallurgy, and the manufacture of machinery, machine tools, rolling stock, chemicals, building materials, and textiles are the major industries. Known to Russians as the "mother of cities," Kiev is one of the oldest towns in N Europe. It probably existed as a commercial center as early as the 5th cent. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was tributary to the Khazars when the VarangiansVarangians
, name given by Slavs and Byzantine Greeks to Scandinavians who began to raid the eastern shores of the Baltic and penetrate Eastern Europe by the 9th cent. Their leader, Rurik, established himself at Novgorod in 862, thus laying the traditional foundation for Kievan
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 under Oleg established themselves there in 882. Under Oleg's successors it became the capital of medieval Kievan Rus (the first Russian state) and was a leading European cultural and commercial center. It was also an early seat of Russian Christianity. The city reached its apogee in the 11th cent., but by the late 12th cent. it had begun to decline. From 1240, when it was devastated by the Mongols, until the 14th cent., the city paid tribute to the Golden Horde. Kiev then passed under the control of Lithuania, which in 1569 was united with Poland. With the establishment of the Kievan Academy in 1632, the city became a center of Ukrainian learning and scholarship. In 1648, when the Ukrainian Cossacks under Bohdan Chmielnicki rose against Poland, Kiev became for a brief period the center of a Ukrainian state. After Ukraine's union with Russia in 1654, however, the city was acquired (1686) by Moscow. In Jan., 1918, Kiev became the capital of the newly proclaimed Ukrainian republic; but in the ensuing civil war (1918–20), it was occupied in succession by German, White Russian, Polish, and Soviet troops. In 1934 the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was transferred from Kharkiv to Kiev. German forces held the city during World War II and massacred thousands of its inhabitants, including 50,000 Jews. Postwar reconstruction of the heavily damaged city was not completed until c.1960. Lying amid hills along the Dnieper and filled with gardens and parks, Kiev is one of Europe's most beautiful cities, as well as a treasury of medieval art and architecture. Its most outstanding buildings include the Tithes Church, the ruins of the Golden Gate (11th cent.), and the 11th-century Cathedral of St. Sophia, which was modeled on Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and contains splendid mosaics, frescoes, and icons. The Uspensky Cathedral, virtually destroyed during World War II, has been fully restored. The celebrated Lavra cave monastery (11th cent.) is now a museum and a sacred place of pilgrimage. The St. Vladimir Cathedral (9th cent.) is famed for its murals. Among the city's educational and cultural institutions are the Univ. of Kiev (1833) and the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (1918).

Kiev

 

a city and capital of the Ukrainian SSR (since 1934). One of the largest industrial, cultural, and scientific centers of the USSR; the center of Kiev Oblast. A major junction of railroads, highways, and air routes. Located on the picturesque banks of the middle Dnieper River. Average January temperature, — 5.8°C; average July temperature, 19.5°C. Total area, 777 sq km (1970). The third largest city in the USSR (after Moscow and Leningrad), Kiev by 1972 had a population of 1,764,000 (248,-000 in 1897, 514,000 in 1926, 851,000 in 1939, 1,104,000 in 1959, and 1,632,000 in 1970); the Kiev megalopolis, which also includes the cities of Borispol’, Boiarka, Brovary, Vyshgorod, Vasil’kov, Irpen’, Fastov, and a number of settlements within a radius of 60–80 km, totals approximately 2 million persons. There are ten urban raions in Kiev.

Historical survey. According to archaeological data, settlements already existed on the territory of Kiev in the Upper Paleolithic period (Kirillovsk campsite).

The name “Kiev” is connected with the name of Kii, the city’s legendary founder. Kiev was founded in the sixth or seventh century A.D. as the center of the eastern Slavic tribe known as the Poliane. It is first mentioned in the Russian chronicles for the year 860 in connection with the campaign of Rus’ against Byzantium. The rise of Kiev was facilitated by its geographical location: through Kiev passed the most important trade routes (“from the Varangians to the Greeks”) to Tsar’grad (Constantinople), Asia, the Don Region, and Novgorod. In 882, Prince Oleg became ruler of Kiev, and from this time to 1132, Kiev was the political, cultural, and trade center of Kievan Rus’ (seeKIEVAN RUS’). Handicraft production, writing, and architecture were highly developed. The Cathedral of St. Sophia, the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura (Monastery), and other outstanding monuments of ancient Russian architecture were constructed in the 11th century. The Russkaia Pravda, the first ancient Russian code of laws, was compiled in Kiev. The aggravation of the social contradictions between the elite of the princes and boyars and the nucleus of Kiev’s working population—the artisans, petty traders, and the servants of the feudal lords—led to a number of popular uprisings (seeKIEV UPRISING OF 1068–69 and KIEV UPRISING OF 1113).

With the feudal disintegration of Kievan Rus’ into a number of principalities, Kiev after the 1130’s lost its importance as the political center of ancient Rus’ and became the center of the Kievan Principality (see KIEVAN PRINCIPALITY). In December 1240, after stubborn resistance, Kiev was captured and destroyed by the Mongol-Tatar conquerors, and from this time it was in a state of vassal dependency on the Golden Horde. In 1362 the Kievan Principality became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1471, Kiev became the center of the Kiev Voevodstvo (territory under a military governor). In 1482 the city was plundered by the troops of Khan Mengli Girei. Between 1494 and 1497 the Lithuanian government, in an attempt to attract the wealthier classes of Kiev’s population to its side, implemented the Magdeburg Right in the city. This action led to a revival of Kiev’s economy and a growth in its population.

In accordance with the 1569 Union of Lublin, Kiev became part of Poland. At the end of the 16th century and in the first half of the 17th, the people of Kiev were active in the Ukrainian people’s struggle against the oppressive yoke of the Polish gentry (in the uprisings of K. Kosinskii in 1591–93 and S. Nalivaiko in 1594—96 and the peasant cossack uprisings of 1625, 1630, and 1637–38). With the founding circa 1615 of the Kievan Brotherhood School, the city became the center of the struggle against the spread of Catholicism and Uniatism in the Ukraine. At the beginning of the 17th century a printing shop was set up at the Kievo-Pecherskaia Laura (the first book, a breviary, was printed in 1616); the Kiev Mogila Academy was founded in 1632. The populace of Kiev took part in the liberation war of the Ukrainian people (1648–54), under the leadership of Bogdan Khmel’nitskii, against gentry Poland and for reunification with Russia. In June 1648 insurgent cossacks headed by D. Nechai expelled the Polish gentry invaders from Kiev, and on Dec. 23, 1648, the peasant cossack army, under Khmel’nitskii’s command, entered the city.

The reunification of the Ukraine and Russia in 1654, as a result of which Kiev became part of the Russian state, was of great historical significance for the city’s development as the economic and cultural center of the Ukrainian lands. From 1654, Kiev was the center of Kiev Voevodstvo within the Russian state (from 1708, the center of Kiev Province; from 1781, Kiev Namestnichestvo [vicegerency]); and from 1797, Kiev Province again. During the second half of the 17th century Kiev was repeatedly attacked by gentry Poland and the Crimean Khanate. During this period it constructed heavy fortifications, becoming a first-class fortress. The economic and cultural development of the city continued throughout the second half of the 17th century and in the 18th. In 1763 there were as many as 42,000 people living in Kiev, including about 3,000 artisans, united in 18 guilds. During the 18th century the first large-scale industrial enterprises came into being (in particular, the Arsenal, 1764). The meetings of the Southern Society of the Decembrists were held here in the 1820’s. A secret political organization known as the Society of Cyril and Methodius existed between 1845 and 1847; its revolutionary wing was headed by T. G. Shevchenko. There were also the Kiev Commune (1873–74), the Southern Russian Workers’ Union (1880–81), the southwestern group of the Narodnaia Volia (People’s Will) Party (1884), and various revolutionary organizations of the Narodniks (Populists). Kiev’s role as an economic and cultural center increased considerably during the 19th century; there was rapid growth of industry, particularly of food-processing and machine-building. With the construction of the Moscow-Kursk-Kiev railroad in 1868–69 and the Kiev-Odessa railroad in 1869–71 and with the establishment of a steamship line on the Dnieper (1858), Kiev also became an important transportation junction. The first streetcar in Russia appeared in Kiev in 1892. The following higher educational institutions were founded: the university (1834), the Higher Courses for Women (1878), and a polytechnic institute (1898).

The development of capitalism, particularly after the 1861 reform, brought about a growth of the working class, which by 1897 numbered 23,000 workers. The first organized strike of railroad workers, involving more than 2,000 workers, occurred in 1879. In 1889 the first Social Democratic circle was established, and in 1891 Social Democratic circles were formed at the university as well as in the railroad workshops. The city’s first May Day celebration was held in 1894, and the year 1897 saw the founding of the Kiev Union of the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class, which played an important role in convoking the First Congress of the RSDLP (1898). The workers of Kiev participated in the General Strike of 1903 in southern Russia. During the 1905–07 Revolution, Kiev was one of the centers of the revolutionary movement in the Ukraine. The revolutionary movement in Kiev, headed by the Bolsheviks, reached its climax during the October All-Russian Political Strike of 1905. Martial law was declared in Kiev on October 14. On October 18 tsarist troops fired at a demonstration of 30,000 workers. On Oct. 21, 1905, the first Soviet of workers’ deputies was elected in Kiev under the chairmanship of the worker F. O. Alekseev. On Nov. 18, 1905, there was an uprising of sappers, which was harshly suppressed by the tsarist authorities.

After the victory of the February 1917 Revolution, the majority in the soviet of workers’ deputies, established on March 4 (17), was made up of Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. At the same time, bourgeois nationalist parties and groups formed the counterrevolutionary Central Rada (Council). After emerging from the underground, the Kiev Organization of the RSDLP (Bolshevik) took over leadership of the struggle of the Kievan workers to establish the power of the soviets. In September 1917 an all-city staff of the Red Guard was created. The Revolutionary Committee was elected on October 27 (November 9) at a joint session of the Kiev Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies and representatives of the garrison, the factory committees, and the trade unions. An uprising of workers and revolutionary soldiers began in Kiev on Oct. 29 (Nov. 11), 1917, ending in victory on October 31 (November 13) (see KIEV ARMED REBELLIONS OF 1917 AND 1918). However, the workers’ victory was used to its advantage by the Central Rada, which seized power in the city. An uprising of Kiev’s workers under the leadership of the Bolsheviks against the Central Rada, which began on Jan. 16 (29), 1918, was harshly suppressed. On Jan. 26 (Feb. 8), 1918, the city was liberated by the Red Army. On Jan. 30 (Feb. 12), 1918, the Soviet Ukrainian government, which had been established in Kharkov in December 1917, was transferred to Kiev.

On Mar. 1, 1918 the city was seized by the Germans, who created the government of General P. P. Skoropadskii and proclaimed him hetman of the Ukraine. The Bolsheviks of Kiev, having gone underground, led the struggle of the city’s workers against the German occupiers and the Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists. After the expulsion of German troops from the Ukraine on Dec. 14, 1918, power in the Ukraine was seized by Petliura’s Ukrainian Directory. On Feb. 5, 1919, the Red Army, having smashed the directory’s troops, liberated Kiev and restored Soviet power. On Aug. 31, 1919, the city was captured by Denikin’s forces. On Dec. 16, 1919, units of the Red Army liberated it from the White Guards. On May 6, 1920, Kiev was captured by troops of bourgeois-landowner Poland, but as early as June 12 these invaders had been driven out.

The restoration of the city’s industry and economy was begun after the Civil War (1918–20). The prewar five-year plans transformed Kiev into a major industrial center. The machine-building, metalworking, chemical, textile, and other branches of industry were developed. In comparison with 1913 the volume of industrial production in 1939 had grown by a factor of 16, while machine building had increased by a factor of 30. On June 24, 1934, in accordance with a decree of the Twelfth Congress of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Ukraine concerning the transfer of the Ukraine’s capital to Kiev, the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Ukraine and the government of the Ukrainian SSR were moved from Kharkov to Kiev.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941—45), the Soviet Army and detachments of the people’s volunteer corps heroically defended the city over the course of 2½ months (July-September 1941) (seeKIEV DEFENSIVE OPERATION OF 1941). During the fascist German occupation (Sept. 20, 1941, to Nov. 6, 1943), the workers of Kiev, under the direction of underground party organizations, waged a struggle against the invaders. On Nov. 6, 1943, troops of the First Ukrainian Front, under the command of General N. F. Vatutin, liberated Kiev (seeKIEV OFFENSIVE OPERATION OF 1943). The fascist German invaders inflicted great damage to the city, killing more than 200,000 persons, forcibly transporting more than 100,000 inhabitants to Germany, and destroying more than 800 enterprises, 940 buildings housing state and public institutions and organizations, and more than 40 percent of the housing. The city was rebuilt during the postwar years. Kiev was awarded the Order of Lenin on May 22, 1954. On June 21, 1961, the hero-city of Kiev was awarded a second Order of Lenin and the medal For the Defense of Kiev was established. In 1965, Kiev was awarded the Gold Star medal.

Many leading Russian and Ukrainian scientists, writers, and cultural figures have lived and worked in Kiev, among them, N. I. Pirogov, M. A. Makismovich, V. I. Vernadskii, T. G. Shevchenko, Lesia Ukrainka, M. T. Ryl’skii, P. G. Tychina, A. E. Korneichuk, A. P. Dovzhenko, N. V. Lysenko, M. A. Vrubel’, and V. M. Vasnetsov. Kiev is the birthplace of the Heroes of the Soviet Union I. N. Boiko, Z. K. Sliusarenko, and O. F. Fedorov, all of whom were awarded the honor twice.

V. M. KOLIADA

Economy. Kiev’s central location on the Dnieper—the principal waterway of the Ukraine—at the junction of the railroads, major highways, and air routes proceeding from Moscow to the western borders of the USSR and its location on the routes connecting the western and northern regions of the Ukrainian SSR with the Donbas and Black Sea regions have exerted a great influence on the city’s economic development. During the years of Soviet power Kiev has become an extremely important industrial center with a diverse economy. Despite the enormous damage inflicted by the fascist German invaders (1941–43), the city’s industry was quickly restored. The capacity of its energy system has increased considerably. New enterprises have been built, and the production of many new articles (computers, instruments, motorcycles) has begun. The chemical industry has been created.

By 1972 the total industrial output had exceeded the 1940 level by a factor of 16. The principal industries are machine building and metalworking (constituting 39 percent of the total industrial output and employing 58 percent of the industrial work force), light industry (20 percent and 17 percent, respectively), and food processing (17 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively). The building-materials, medical, and other industries have undergone considerable growth. The foremost places in the machine-building industry are occupied by the production of complex and precision machines, machine tools (the Gorky Plant of Automatic Machine Tools), and machinery for the construction and road-building industries (the Krasnyi Ekskavator and Stroidormash plants, the Leninskaia Kuznitsa Shipyard, the Darnitsa Railroad-car Repair Plant, a motorcycle plant, and the Transsignal Plant). Instrument-making is developed, including the production of photographic and motion-picture cameras, electrical and radio measuring devices, medical equipment, and computers (the Tochelektropribor Plant, computer and control machinery plants, the Elektropribor Plant, and a plant for the construction of automatic batching units). Also developed are electrical engineering (the Ukrkabel’ Plant) and chemical machine-building (the Bolshevik Plant), the manufacture of plumbing equipment, and the production of technical equipment for the food-processing industry, for trade enterprises, and for public eating facilities.

The chemical industry is represented by plants for the production of such items as chemical fibers, chemical products, plastics, household chemical products, and varnishes and paints, as well as by Krasnyi Rezinshchik and Vulcan plants. There is production of building materials, and enterprises of the woodworking industry have been established, including an industrial-construction combine, woodworking combines, and enterprises for the production of ceramic blocks, reinforced-concrete structures, and furniture. There is a plant for the production of decorative glassware. The manufacture of textiles has developed on a large scale (especially wool and silk) as well as the production of knitted goods, clothing, and leather footwear. The principal enterprises of light industry are the Darnitsa and Kiev silk combines; a cotton-spinning mill; and footwear, clothing (the Gorky, Ukraina, Smirnov-Lastochkin factories), and knitted-goods factories (Rosa Luxemburg, Kievlianka factories). The principal enterprises of the food-processing industry include bread-baking combines, the Darnitsa Meat-packing Plant, butter and cheese combines, a confectionery factory, wineries (including champagnes), and a tobacco factory. A major printing industry has been established in Kiev (a printing combine and a color-printing enterprise). Located near Kiev is the Kiev Hydroelectric Power Plant with its reservoir. The city receives gas from Kharkov Oblast and from Ciscarpathia.

There has been a great deal of housing construction during the postwar years. By 1972, Kiev’s housing facilities totaled 22.4 million sq m, of which 79 percent was built between 1946 and 1971. The large scope of economic growth and housing construction has resulted in the city’s territorial expansion and the origin of new residential blocks and districts. The largest of these are the Darnitsa and Dnieper districts on the left bank of the Dnieper, where one-fourth of Kiev’s population resides. The area of tree and shrub plantings totals 49,000 ha (1970); the water areas within the city’s boundaries total 5,500 ha. Kiev also has a subway.

A large suburban-type base of agriculture has been created around Kiev, which produces vegetables, potatoes, and livestock products.

L. M. KORETSKII

Architecture. Kiev is a city of picturesque contrasts: of high hills with steep drops and flat expanses of the Dnieper valley; of densely built-up residential districts and huge park areas; of large-scale public ensembles and individual architectural monuments; of broad thoroughfares and cozy little lanes buried in luxurious vegetation.

In the tenth century Kiev was divided into the Upper City (Old Kiev), where the Desiatinnaia Church (Church of Tithes; 989–996) was located, and the Lower City (Podol), where the artisan quarters were concentrated. During the 11th century the Upper City was surrounded by a fortress wall, of which stone fragments from the Golden Gate have been preserved. The Cathedral of St. Sophia (1037; reconstructed in the 17th century; frescoes and mosaics date from the 11th century) became the compositional focus of the Upper City. The first structures of the Kiev-Pechersaia Laura began appearing along with those of the Vydubetskii Monastery (the Church of St. Michael, 1070–88). Dating from the 12th century are the Church of the Saviour at the village of Berestovo (1113–25; rebuilt in 1640–43; paintings from the 12th century and 1644) and the Church of St. Cyril (mid-12th century; rebuilt in the 18th century by I. G. Grigorovich-Barskii; paintings from the 12th, 17th, and 19th centuries).

Construction in Kiev, which was insignificant from the 13th through 16th centuries, was revived during the 17th century. Built at that time were the monumental Church of Nikola Pritisk (1631) and the Church of St. Elias (1692), which in form resembled Ukrainian wooden architecture. There was intensive construction in the vicinity of the Laura, and buildings of the 11th and 12th centuries were rebuilt. At the end of the 17th century and in the 18th, construction was carried out in the style of the Ukrainian and Russian baroque: the Campanile (first story built during the late 17th century and early 18th; the second and third, 1746–48, by the architect I. G. Shedel, the fourth story, 1853), the Zaborovskii Gate (1746–48; architect, I. G. Shedel’), the Metropolitan’s residence and the seminary (within the ensemble of the St. Sophia Monastery), the Church of St. George, the refectory (1696–1701) and belfry (1727–33) of the Vydubetskii Monastery, the Vozneseniia Church (1732) of the Frolovskii Monastery, the Pokrovskaia Church (1766, I. G. Grigorovich-Barskii), and the Church of St. Andrew (1748–67; architects, V. V. Rastrelli and I. F. Michurin; paintings in the rococo style by A. P. Antropov and others). Also built at this time were the Mariinskii Palace (1752–55; architects, V. V. Rastrelli, A. V. Kvasov, and others; it burned down in 1819 and was restored in 1870; architect, K. Ia. Maevskii) and the Klovskii Palace (1754–58; V. I. Neelov and S. D. Kovnir).

In the first half of the 19th century buildings were constructed in the style of classicism, for example, the monument in honor of the Magdeburg Right (1802–08; architect, A. I. Melenskii), the rotunda at Askold’s Tomb (1809–10; architect, A. I. Melenskii; added onto in 1936), and the university (1837–43; architect, V. I. Beretti). Important urban construction projects were undertaken, such as the building of the city’s principal thoroughfare the Kreshchatik; planning of the Lower City (1811–12; architect, V. I. Geste); and the development of a general plan for the city’s downtown area (1837; architect, V. I. Beretti). Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, construction in Kiev was essentially characterized by stylized and eclectic buildings, for example, the Cathedral of St. Vladimir (1850–96; architects, A. V. Beretti, P. I. Sparro, and V. N. Nikolaev; paintings by V. M. Vasnetsov, M. V. Nesterov, and others), the Museum of Ukrainian Fine Arts (1900; architects, G. P. Boitsov and V. V. Gorodetskii), the opera theater (1901; architect V. A. Shreter), and the State Bank (1902–05; architects, A. V. Kobelev and A. M. Verbitskii). Monuments were erected to Prince Vladimir (bronze, 1853; sculptors, V. I. Demut-Malinovskii and P. K. Klodt; architect, K. A. Ton and Bogdan Khmel’nitskii (bronze and granite, 1870–88; sculptor, M. O. Mikeshin).

Construction developed intensively during the years of Soviet power, and the city’s appearance has changed. A general plan for the city was worked out from 1938 to 1940. Monumental public buildings and apartment houses were erected, including the railroad terminal (1927–33; architect, A. M. Verbitskii), the buildings housing the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR (1934–38; architects, I. A. Fomin and P. V. Abrosimov) and the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR (1936–39; architect, V. I. Zabolotnyi), and the Central Republic Stadium (1936–46; architect, M. I. Grechina). A monument was also erected to T. G. Shevchenko (bronze and granite, 1938; sculptor, M. G. Manizer; architect, E. A. Levinson). Kiev was heavily damaged during the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), and the Kreshchatik was almost completely destroyed.

The city has been reconstructed and improved in the postwar years, and the land area of Kiev has been extended. In accordance with the general plan of 1945–47, a new architectural ensemble of the Kreshchatik was created (1947–54; architects, A. V. Vlasov, A. V. Dobrovol’skii, V. D. Elizarov, B. I. Priimak, and A. I. Malinovskii). An intensified area development of Kiev was inaugurated in 1959, and the following new housing blocks were built: Pervomaiskii (Chokolovka), Syrets, Nivki, and Rusanovka (1965–72; architects, V. E. Ladnyi and G. S. Kul’chitskii); Berezniaki (1971; architects, S. B. Shpil’t, V. M. Grechina, G. N. Blinova, and V. I. Kozlova); and Vodopark, Obolon’, and others, separated by greenery and water from Kiev’s industrial sections, which are located, for the most part, in the city’s lowlying left-bank region (Darnitsa) and the leeward, right-bank area (the Podol, Oktiabr’, and Zheleznodorozhnyi districts). The first three sections of the subway were put into operation between 1960 and 1971. The first stations were Kreshchatik (architects, A. V. Dobrovol’skii and others), Polytechnic Institute (architects, G. V. Golovko and B. V. Dzbanovskii), and Sviatoshino (architects, G. V. Golovko, N. S. Kolomiets, and M. M. Syrkin).

Other new buildings were the Sports Palace (1958–60; architects, M. I. Grechina and A. I. Zavarov; engineer, V. I. Rep’iakh), the Dnieper Hotel (1964; architects, V. D. Elizarov and others), the Palace of Pioneers (1965; architects, A. M. Miletskii and E. A. Bil’skii; sculptor, V. Z. Borodai), the airlines terminal at Borispol’ (1966; architects, A. V. Dobrovol’skii and others), and the Ukraina Palace of Culture (1970; architects, E. A. Marinchenko, I. G. Vainer, and P. N. Zhilitskii). Monuments erected include those to V. I. Lenin (granite and Iabradorite, 1946; sculptor, S. D. Merkurov) and to N. A. Shchors (bronze and granite, 1954; sculptors, M. G. Lysenko, V. Z. Borodai, and others), an obelisk in the Park of Glory (granite, 1957; architects, A. M. Miletskii and others), and monuments to A. S. Pushkin (bronze and labradorite, 1962; sculptor, A. A. Kovalev) and to members of the Cheka (granite, 1967; sculptor, V. Z. Borodai). A general plan was approved in 1969 for the development of Kiev (architects, B. I. Priimak, V. M. Grechina, and G. M. Slutskii; engineers, S. P. Bronshtein and others) to the year 2000 and provides for intensive construction on the left bank, in the floodland of the Dnieper, which is becoming the central axis for planning of Kiev.

S. K. KILESSO

Education and cultural affairs. Kiev is the seat of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and its institutions. Among these are such world-famous scientific research institutes as the Institute of Cybernetics, the Institute of Mechanics, the E. O. Paton Institute of Electrical Welding, the L. V. Pisarzhevskii Institute of Physical Chemistry, and the D. K. Zabolotnyi Institute of Microbiology and Virology. A large group of specialists in the social sciences are employed in the academy’s institutes of economics, history, philosophy, government, and law; the A. A. Potebnia Institute of Linguistics; and the T. G. Shevchenko Institute of Literature. Also operating in Kiev is the Institute of Party History attached to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Ukraine (an affiliate of the Institute of Marxism and Leninism attached to the Central Committee of the CPSU). Studies in the natural sciences and technology as well as in the social sciences are likewise conducted at Kiev’s higher educational institutions. Much scientific work has been accomplished at the Kiev scientific research institutes of the Republic and Union departments and organizations: for example, an institute of synthetic superhard materials, an institute of automation, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Sugar Beets, the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture, the Kiev Scientific Research Institute of Neurosurgery, the Kiev Scientific Research Institute for Tuberculosis and Thoracic Surgery, and the Scientific Research Institute of Gerontology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR.

During the 1971–72 academic year the 18 higher educational institutions had an enrollment of 136,000 students. They included the University of Kiev, a polytechnic institute, institutes for construction engineers and civil aviation engineers, an agricultural academy, a technological institute of the food industry, a technological institute of light industry, a conservatory, and institutes for automobile and highway engineers, commerce and economics, the national economy, culture, medicine, teacher training, the teaching of foreign languages, physical culture, theatrical arts, and the arts. The 39 specialized secondary institutions had 56,400 pupils, and the 298 general education schools had 239,000 pupils. As of Jan. 1, 1972, there were 21,600 pupils enrolled in 32 technical-vocational schools. In 1970 there were 96,300 children in 635 preschool institutions.

As of Jan. 1, 1972, Kiev had 222 public libraries (with 7,903,000 copies of books and journals) as well as the largest Ukrainian libraries, the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and the CPSU State Library of the Ukrainian SSR. Other cultural institutions included 15 museums, including an affiliate of the V. I. Lenin Central Museum, the Historical Museum of the Ukrainian SSR, the Museum of Ukrainian Fine Arts of the Ukrainian SSR, the T. G. Shevchenko Museum of Art and Literature, the Kievo-Pecherskaia Historical and Cultural Preserve, and the Sophia Museum architectural and historical preserve. Among the seven theaters are the T. G. Shevchenko Theater of Opera and Ballet, the I. Franko Academic Ukrainian Dramatic Theater, the Lesia Ukrainka Academic Russian Dramatic Theater, the Lenin Komsomol Republic Young People’s Theater, an operetta theater, a puppet theater, and Raduga, an estrada (the variety stage) theater of mime. There are 91 clubs, 133 motion-picture projection units, nine palaces and houses of Pioneers, nine sports schools, and other extracurricular institutions.

Located in Kiev are the republic-level publishing houses Politvydav (Political Literature Publishing House), Radian’ska Ukraïna (Soviet Ukraine), Dnipro (Dnieper), and Vesëlka (Rainbow), among others; the republic telegraph agency RATAU; the republic radio and television centers; and the oblast and municipal radio stations and television center. In 1971, 18 republic newspapers were published. The city’s evening newspaper Vechirniy Kyiv (Evening Kiev) has been publishing since 1927.

Public health. By 1972 the city had 76 hospitals, 198 medical establishments providing outpatient and polyclinical aid, and 79 women’s and children’s consultation offices and clinics. Hospital beds totaled 24,100 (13.6 beds per 1,000 population) compared with 4,500 beds (1.2 beds per 1,000 population) in 1913, when only five hospitals were in operation. In 1972 there were 14,100 physicians (one physician per 125 population) compared with 1,200 physicians (one per 1,600 population) in 1913. Kiev also has a medical institute, an institute for the advanced training of physicians, and a number of medical research institutes. Located in the environs of Kiev are the climatic health resorts of Vorzel’, Pushcha-Voditsa, Boiarka, Irpen’, Koncha-Zaspa, and Sviatoshino and 43 sanatoriums and houses of rest.

V. D. BRATUS'

REFERENCES

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Kiev

the capital of Ukraine, on the Dnieper River: formed the first Russian state by the late 9th century; university (1834). Pop.: 2 623 000 (2005 est.)