The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Ray), the legal newspaper of the Bolshevik organization of Estland. The paper was published in Narva, in Estonian, from June 15 (28), 1912. At first it was published once a week. After Dec. 1, 1912, it was issued three times a week, and later, twice a week. Circulation, 2,200–4,000.

Constant persecution by the police forced the newspaper to change its name four times: Narva Kiir, Rahvaleht (People’s Newspaper), Töö Hääl (The Voice of Labor), and Too Kiir (The Ray of Labor). A total of 29 issues were confiscated and fined. The paper had 19 official editors in chief and eight publishers during a period of two years. In all, 228 issues were published. The editor of Kiir was J. Anvelt, and active participants included V. Kingissepp, H. Pöögelmann, and J. Käspert. At the end of 1913 the Bolshevik faction of the State Duma recognized the newspaper as a Bolshevik organ and began to give it material support. This decision was approved by the Central Committee of the RSDLP. Kiir was closed on July 12 (25), 1914, by a decree of the St. Petersburg Court of Law. Publication was resumed by its previous editors on Mar. 18 (31), 1917, in Revel. It was published daily as the organ of the North Baltic and Revel committees of the RSDLP (Bolshevik). The paper had a circulation of 10,000–12,000; 88 issues were published. It printed 30 of Lenin’s articles, speeches, and documents and the resolutions of the seventh (April) conference of the RSDLP (Bolshevik). The paper was closed by the Provisional Government on July 12 (25), 1917.


Bol’shevistskaia periodicheskaia pechat’, 1900–1917. Moscow, 1964.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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