[The Kimbanguism] (Paris: Eki, 2002).
Secondly, there has been a (highly publicized) phenomenon of the explicit and belated divinization of the founding prophets who are now presented as "incarnations" of God--for example, Oshoffa (Celestial Church of Christ) and Simon Kimbangu (Kimbanguism
)--a development that has caused tensions with the WCC and several traditional churches.
The book has updated debates about spirit possession too, especially in relation to Kimbanguism
. Because Kimbanguists today reject spirit possession, some scholars have argued that the recent phenomena of spiritual seizure found among Kimbanguists in Kinshasa and other urban centres must be due to influence from Pentecostal churches.
The latter culminated in the creation of the widespread independent church known as Kimbanguism
, which has proclaimed Kimbangu himself God and, more precisely, the Holy Spirit in their version of the Christian Trinity.
(20.) Aurelien Mokoko Gampiot, "Kimbanguism
as a Migrant's Religion in Europe," in Christianity in Africa and the African Diaspora: The Appropriation of a Scattered Heritage, ed.
The most popular of these sects, Kimbanguism
, was seen as a threat to the colonial regime and was banned by the Belgians.
Independent religious movements, including Kimbanguism
in Zaire, the Lumpa Church of Alice Lenshina in Zambia, and the Zionist churches in South Africa, are all situated within their social contexts.
A small minority of Christians practice Kimbanguism
, a syncretistic movement that originated in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Anticolonial sentiment among the masses often took the form of religious exaltation: Kimbanguism
in the Belgian Congo, the Maji Maji rebellion of Tanganyika, followers of the Mahdi in the Sudan.
African Messianisms -- like Kimbanguism
at its start -- cross these two visions of transcendence.
From this perspective he can link, in an imaginative and stimulating treatment, such seemingly disparate phenomenon as Zionism and Aladura, Kimbanguism
, Rhodesia's Rukwadzanos, Uganda's Balokole movement, and Jamaa in Zaire.