It has been only recently that Kimbanguism
has become a non-possessive religion, one in which only severely disciplined and acutely ordered body gestures are to be accepted.
The latter culminated in the creation of the widespread independent church known as Kimbanguism
, which has proclaimed Kimbangu himself God and, more precisely, the Holy Spirit in their version of the Christian Trinity.
The most popular of these sects, Kimbanguism
, was seen as a threat to the colonial regime and was banned by the Belgians.
Independent religious movements, including Kimbanguism
in Zaire, the Lumpa Church of Alice Lenshina in Zambia, and the Zionist churches in South Africa, are all situated within their social contexts.
While retaining many elements of Christianity, Kimbanguism
also recognizes its founder (Simon Kimbangu) as a prophet and incorporates African traditional beliefs, such as ancestor worship.
Anticolonial sentiment among the masses often took the form of religious exaltation: Kimbanguism
in the Belgian Congo, the Maji Maji rebellion of Tanganyika, followers of the Mahdi in the Sudan.
&the Question of Syncretism in Zaire : 241-256, in T.
African Messianisms -- like Kimbanguism
at its start -- cross these two visions of transcendence.
From this perspective he can link, in an imaginative and stimulating treatment, such seemingly disparate phenomenon as Zionism and Aladura, Kimbanguism
, Rhodesia's Rukwadzanos, Uganda's Balokole movement, and Jamaa in Zaire.
First, it led to the state oppressing a number of therapeutic insurgencies that caused it alarm, notably Kimbanguism
and Kitawala, and subsequently to it finding nefarious means of disciplining subjects suspected of involvement in them.
Shank, "An Indigenous Church Comes of Age: Kimbanguism
," Mennonite Life 27 (June 1972): 53-55.
the land which the LORD your God giveth you": two churches founded by African migrants in Oststadt, Germany, 265-278; Dapo Asaju, Colonial politicization of religion: residual effects on the ministry of African-led churches in Britain, 279-292; Herbert Griffiths, The implication of mission from a Black Seventh-day Adventist perspective, with reference to Britain, the Caribbean and Africa, 293-303; Aurdlien Mokoko Gampiot, Kimbanguism
as a migrants' religion in Europe, 304-313; Alle G.