Kinases


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

Kinases

 

phosphotransferases, a group of enzymes belonging to the transferases that transfer phosphate groups from adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP) to a variety of substrates (predominantly to the hydroxyl groups of alcohols, carbohydrates, or amino acids).

The presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+) is necessary for all kinases (these ions serve as the connecting link between ATP and protein). The kinases include enzymes that make for the utilization of glycogen and glucose in the cell (phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase) and enzymes that participate in the synthesis of coenzymes (NAD-kinase, riboflavin kinase, pyridoxal kinase). They also include the protein kinases, which bring about the phosphorylation of proteins. Kinase reactions entailing the conversion of the energy-rich APT bond to an energy-poor bond are practically irreversible. By contrast, acetate kinase, carbamate kinase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase (myokinase), nucleoside monophosphate kinase, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyze reactions in which there is a transfer of phosphate groups without a loss of energy; these reactions are readily reversible.

Hydrolytic enzymes (enterokinase, thromobokinase, plasminokinase), although they are also called kinases, do not belong to the above group.

V. I. TELEPNEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, consisting of the extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK1/2), the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), the p38 kinase (p38), and the big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1/ERK5) pathway [47], are major intracellular signal transduction pathways that play an important role in various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, development, cell cycle, survival, and cell death [48].
EGFR is a single transmembrane protein that possesses intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, which can be directly activated or transactivated in response to a variety of stimuli (Gschwind et al.
The three Aurora kinases play relevant functions during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle [18, 19].
Since splicing factors such as SF2/ASF1 and hnGRNPs are overexpressed in various cancers with constitutively active growth survival signals, the connecting link between initiating EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)--Akt kinase--GSK3beta kinase survival signaling pathways with regulation of splicing factors is barely been studied.
Kinase is a class of enzyme that helps to transfer phosphate groups to the targeted substrate from molecules with high energy such as adenosine triphosphate (ADP).
RBC has a heavy focus on kinase and epigenetic drug targets for both biochemical and cell-based assays.
ETI is mediated by R genes, such as NBS-LRR, receptor-like kinases (RLK) and serine/ threonine kinase.
Eligible patients will have previously received imatinib and one or two additional tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
Keywords: PIM kinases, Cancer, Homology modeling, Virtual screening, Molecular docking.
ROS functions as an intracellular messenger and activator of receptor tyrosine kinases [20].
[15] develop an automated programmer called PhosNetConstruct for predicting target kinases for a substrate protein based on analysis of domain specific kinase-substrate relationships which are derived from the HMM profiles obtained from multiple sequence alignments of related proteins [15].