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phosphotransferases, a group of enzymes belonging to the transferases that transfer phosphate groups from adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP) to a variety of substrates (predominantly to the hydroxyl groups of alcohols, carbohydrates, or amino acids).

The presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+) is necessary for all kinases (these ions serve as the connecting link between ATP and protein). The kinases include enzymes that make for the utilization of glycogen and glucose in the cell (phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase) and enzymes that participate in the synthesis of coenzymes (NAD-kinase, riboflavin kinase, pyridoxal kinase). They also include the protein kinases, which bring about the phosphorylation of proteins. Kinase reactions entailing the conversion of the energy-rich APT bond to an energy-poor bond are practically irreversible. By contrast, acetate kinase, carbamate kinase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase (myokinase), nucleoside monophosphate kinase, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyze reactions in which there is a transfer of phosphate groups without a loss of energy; these reactions are readily reversible.

Hydrolytic enzymes (enterokinase, thromobokinase, plasminokinase), although they are also called kinases, do not belong to the above group.


References in periodicals archive ?
The approach has proven beneficial for researchers who are currently testing broad-spectrum profiling of specific kinase inhibitors in live cells for a more realistic estimate of inhibitor selectivity under more physiological conditions.
Keywords: PIM kinases, Cancer, Homology modeling, Virtual screening, Molecular docking.
Nexus BioPharma, a preclinical stage biotechnology company, has signed a contract to license TransChem's transition state chemistry technology for kinase inhibition, it is reported today.
The market currently has seven approved non-tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
However, Engelman and colleagues discovered that although mutant KRAS activates ERK signaling in human KRAS mutant colorectal cancers, receptor tyrosine kinases control PI3K signaling.
Monoclonal antibodies against phospho-p38, total extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), total p38, and phospho-ERK1/2 were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
This is associated with movement of c-Src or other factors in such a fashion that Pyk2 activity is enhanced (Movement of other upstream kinases or factors is under investigation).
Kinexus is poised to become a major proteomics and bioinformatics player with its focus on protein kinases and other cell signalling proteins for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
And this raises the dazzling possibility that a class of drugs now in development--the p38 MAP kinase inhibitors--could play a role in the treatment of each of the diseases in this eclectic group, Dr.
The largest subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases is the Eph family, which has 14 fully sequenced members.
MAP kinases exert their effects through upregulation of transcription factors and function downstream of Pyk2 in several cell types.
Kinases are essential for the body's intracellular signaling and other vital functions.