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[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
By the end of 2019, the Kyrgyz Government plans to complete the construction of 64 facilities, including 41 schools and gyms, 3 kindergartens, 6 gyms and complexes, 6 healthcare facilities and a number of other facilities.
During the meeting, it was noted that Bishkek is planned to place 1,000 children in private kindergartens in Bishkek city and 500 children in the kindergartens of Osh city.
Regional Commissioner for Children Adel Aloui said on Thursday that managers of these kindergartens are called upon to regularise the legal status of these areas in accordance with the specifications for the creation of kindergartens, Kouttab and preparatory classes.
A kindergarten in Gyeonggi Province is under fire for children "gender biased" homework.
Based on experiences and results of the sister project "Join the Healthy Boat" in primary schools [15-17], the intervention was designed and implemented in kindergartens in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg, southwest Germany.
History of kindergarten. Kindergartens, identified in curriculum and policy documents as Early Childhood Services, are now under the jurisdiction of school districts in Alberta, but this has not always been the case.
He stressed that in recent years the Government led by VMRO-DPMNE fully committed itself to raising the capacities for taking care of preschool children and opening new kindergartens.
Jury estimated kindergartens in their teaching methodology, creativity, approach to children, etc.
"The kindergartens were warned for violating the licensing system, which includes violations that threaten the students safety, as well as educational and administrative violations," the ministry said in a statement.
Under the plan, kindergartens will be exempt from taxes, insurance premiums will be paid by the state on behalf of employers and private companies will be able to deduct money spent on kindergarten services from their taxes.
Speaking to Gulf News, Dubai Education Zone director Dr Ahmad Eid Al Mansouri said that his department is in talks with the Ministry of Education on the establishment of 20 more government-owned kindergartens as soon as possible.