Tan, "Autoantibody to centromere (kinetochore
) in scleroderma sera," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Salmon, "Localization of Mad2 to kinetochores
depends on microtubule attachment, not tension," The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
Essential roles of Drosophila inner centromere protein (Incenp) and Aurora B in histone H3 phosphorylation, metaphase chromosome alignment, kinetochore
disjunction, and chromosome segregation.
Wang et al., "A microtubule-associated zinc finger protein, BuGZ, regulates mitotic chromosome alignment by ensuring Bub3 stability and kinetochore
targeting," Developmental Cell, vol.
These chromosomes have a diffuse centromere (the non-localized centromere, diffuse kinetochore
), contrary to monocentric chromosomes with a localized position of the centromere, prevailing in the plant kingdom.
This is accomplished by a different orientation of the kinetochores
in meiosis I through the use of REC8, monopolin proteins, and Aurora B Kinase [58, 65].
During the prophase of meiosis I, the synapsed chromosomes form a bivalent structure that also has one exposed minus-face kinetochore
and one exposed plus-face kinetochore
More sophisticated and less destructive methods were slowly developed and in 1942, Carlson studied embryonic neuroblasts of Chortophaga (Carlson 1942), perforating living cells with a microneedle to manipulate the spindle and associated chromosomes; he determined that the latter were mechanically attached to the spindle, which was a semisolid longitudinal structure, through their kinetochores
from prophase through late anaphase.
al., 1983; Orhon and Meneves, 1986) Clastogenic and aneugenic agents affect the spindle apparatus, which can be differentiated on basis of the relative induced micronucleus sizes or with the presence of kinetochores
The lead story in the March 2000 Home page misspelled kinetochores
when describing the staining process used by the winner of the 1999 Nikon International Small World Competition.
and attachment plaques (points of attachment to the nuclear membrane) of all SCs were routinely visible.
Functional states of kinetochores
revealed by laser microsurgery and fluorescent speckle microscopy.