Hammurabi

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Hammurabi
BirthplaceBabylon
Known for Code of Hammurabi

Hammurabi

(hämo͝orä`bē), fl. 1792–1750 B.C., king of BabyloniaBabylonia
, ancient empire of Mesopotamia. The name is sometimes given to the whole civilization of S Mesopotamia, including the states established by the city rulers of Lagash, Akkad (or Agade), Uruk, and Ur in the 3d millennium B.C.
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. He founded an empire that was eventually destroyed by raids from Asia Minor. Hammurabi may have begun building the tower of Babel (Gen. 11.4), which can now be identified with the temple-tower in Babylon called Etemenanki. His code of laws is one of the greatest of ancient codes. It is carved on a diorite column, in 3,600 lines of cuneiform; it was found (1902) at Susa and is now at Paris. The code, which addresses such issues as business and family relations, labor, private property, and personal injuries, is generally humanitarian. One severe feature, however, is the retributive nature of the punishment, which follows "an eye for an eye" literally. Much of the code is drawn from earlier Sumerian and Semitic laws, which seem to provide the basis for its harshly punitive nature.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hammurabi

 

King of Babylonia (1792–1750 B.C.). The ascendancy of Babylonia is associated with his name.

An Amorite in origin, Hammurabi was a skillful politician and military leader. Within 35 years he succeeded, by military force and diplomacy, in bringing Assyria and the southern and middle regions of Mesopotamia under Babylonian Tule. His codification of the law, known as the Code of Hammurabi, reflected various significant developments under his reign—specifically, the expansion of commodity-money relations, the growth of private slaveholding, the increasing centralization of the state, and the consolidation of the king’s power.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Hammurabi

Babylonian king (c. 1800 B.C.); established first systematic legal code. [Classical Hist.: EB, 8: 598–599]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Hammurabi

, Hammurapi
?18th century bc, king of Babylonia; promulgator of one of the earliest known codes of law
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
While I might think it would be fitting to start printing new Iraqi currency with an image of King Hammurabi on it, I'm not going to use the currency.
Whether you trace the roots of insurance and the principles of risk management back to King Hammurabi's Code of Law in 1780 BC, or to the small London coffee shop of Edward Lloyd in the 1680s, where ship owners and insurers met to have coffee and discuss transferring risk for a fee--aka insurance--it's not a new idea.
The people were reunited in 1700BC by King Hammurabi of Babylon and the country flourished under the name of Babylonia.
'Cuneiform inscriptions on the 25 artefacts found at the temple indicate that the building dates back to the old Babylonian era, and to the reign of King Hammurabi (179-1750 BC) in particular,' said Iraq newspaper Tikrit, quoting a source at the Antiquities and Heritage Department.
This remarkable text, identified in the 1920s by the Jesuit Franz Kugler, contains data on first and last visibilities of Venus during a 21-year period that is believed to involve the reign of King Ammis.aduqa, who governed a little over a century after the famous Babylonian king Hammurabi.
In the Louvre, a slab of black diorite presents the law code of King Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE).
By 1700 B.C.E., Babylonian King Hammurabi had established a 282 clause Code of laws which regulated a wide array of obligations, professions and rights, including commerce, slavery, marriage, theft, and debts.
The Louvre in Paris got the giant stone slab on which King Hammurabi's 4,000-year-old code of law was written.
The piece which is one of only two major works to survive from the reign of Babylonian King Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) will travel with Neil MacGregor, director of the British Museum, and museum experts to form the centrepiece of a series of talks and activities.
In about 1800 B.C., the Babylonian King Hammurabi gave the world its first known system of written laws.