Saaremaa

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Saaremaa

Saaremaa or Sarema (both: säˈrĕmä), Swed. Ösel, Rus. Ezel, 1,048 sq mi (2,714 sq km), island off the mainland of Estonia, in the Baltic Sea, across the mouth of the Gulf of Riga. It is irregular in shape and has a level terrain. Dairy farming, stock raising, and fishing are the chief occupations. Kuressaare is the main town and port. It is also a health resort and a popular tourist destination. The island was ruled by the Livonian Knights until 1560, when it passed to Denmark, which in turn ceded (1645) it to Sweden. Saaremaa passed to Russia in 1710 and was incorporated into newly independent Estonia in 1917. It is also called Saare.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Saaremaa

 

(also Saare, Sarema, Ezel’), the largest island in the Moonsund (West Estonian) Archipelago, in the Baltic Sea; part of the Estonian SSR. Linked by a causeway with Muhu Island. Area, 2,714 sq km.

The island is mainly a limestone structure, covered in places by glacial and marine deposits. Its low-lying surface, rising to an elevation of 54 m, is marshy in places. The soil, formed from carbonaceous, wind-eroded rocks, is poor and gravelly. There are pine forests and infrequent thickets of juniper. Many sea-fowl nest along the shore. There is commercial fishing for Baltic herring, eels, and flatfish. There are deposits of limestones and dolomites (at Karma). The principal city is Kingissepa. On the western part of the island is the Viidumäe Preserve. Northwest of Kingissepa, in Kaali, there is a game preserve with meteorite craters.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), the island was seized by fascist German forces during September and October 1941 (seeMOONSUND DEFENSIVE OPERATION OF 1941). As a result of the Moonsund Operation of October-November 1944, the island was liberated by troops of the Leningrad Front and naval forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. In Tekhumardi there is a monument entitled To the Defenders and Liberators of Saaremaa (1967, architect A. Murdmaa, sculptors M. Varik and R. Kuld).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The "Vermiporella" beds by Nolvak (1984) found in several sections in Saaremaa Island (at 297.6-306.5 m in the Kingissepa core, at 348.0-354.3 m in the Kaugatuma core; Fig.
In sections from the islands of Hiiumaa (Orjaku core) and Saaremaa (Eikla, Kaugatuma, and Kingissepa cores), this species occurs only in the uppermost carbonate part of the Adila Formation (A2, Fig.
Ruskavere, Palamuse, Aidu, Koksvere, Kingissepa, and Eikla cores), and is the lateral equivalent of the typical red-coloured Jonstorp strata (Kaugatuma and Pamu cores; Figs.
veebruaril 1956 saadud preester Felix Kadariku kirraat said valiseestlased teada, et konealune vaimulik sai Saaremaa ja Hiiumaa praostiks, Eugen Tamm Muhu-Hellamaa koguduse preestriks ja Andrei Klaas Kuressaare ehk uue nimega Kingissepa koguduse preestriks.
Vesiku-507 core, depth 3.20-3.40 m, and Vesiku outcrop; Kipi core, depth 36.60-36.65 m; Kuressaare (= Kingissepa) core, depth 51.84-51.92 m; Riksu-803 core, depth 60.0-64.8 m; Tehumardi core, depth 68.0-68.1 m; Viita and Vesiku beds of the Rootsikula Stage, Homerian, Upper Wenlock, Lower Silurian; Saaremaa, Estonia; Ventspils core, depth 615.8-616.0 m, Latvia; Sesupe Beds of the Dubysa Formation, Lower Ludlow, Upper Silurian.
Kingissepa nimelise paberi- ja tselluloositehase parteisekretar tselluloositoodangu vahenemist alates 1940.
About 150 well-preserved scales from the Kaarmise-GI core, depth 2.9-3.1 m; Kuressaare-GI (= Kingissepa) core, depth 31.38-31.41 m; Himmiste-982 core, depth 1.7-1.9 m; Uduvere- 968 core, depth 3.6-3.9 m, and 4.5 m; Irase-680 core, depth 6.6 m; Silma cliff samples 1 and 2 TM86; Himmiste Beds of the Paadla Stage, Ludlow.