Kingston

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Kingston,

city (1991 pop. 56,597), S Ont., Canada, on Lake Ontario, near the head of the St. Lawrence River and at the end of Rideau CanalRideau Canal
, 126 mi (203 km) long, S Ont., Canada, connecting the Ottawa River at Ottawa with Lake Ontario at Kingston. The canal, which has 47 locks, follows the course of the Rideau River. It was built (1826–32) by army engineers under the direction of Col.
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 from Ottawa. Kingston has probably the best harbor on the lake. Industries include the manufacture of locomotives, ships, mining equipment, textiles, aluminum products, synthetic yarn, and ceramics.

On the site stood Fort Frontenac, which was of great importance in the French and Indian War. The present city was founded by United Empire Loyalists in 1783 and prospered during the War of 1812 as the Canadian naval base for operations against the Americans. From 1841 to 1844 it served as the capital of Canada. Fort Henry, built during the War of 1812 and rebuilt from 1832 to 1836, is now a museum. Kingston is the seat of Queen's Univ. (1841), of the Royal Military College, of a campus of St. Lawrence College, and of Anglican and Roman Catholic bishoprics and cathedrals.


Kingston,

city (1991 pop. 97,424), capital and largest city of Jamaica, SE Jamaica. The country's chief port, it has one of the finest harbors in the West Indies and exports sugar, rum, molasses, and bananas. The city's industries include tourism, food processing, and oil refining. Kingston was founded in 1693 on a deep, landlocked harbor. The former capital, Port Royal, at the tip of the long, narrow peninsula forming the harbor, was inundated after an earthquake in 1692; the capital was then moved to Spanish Town and, in 1872, to Kingston. After fire destroyed the new Port Royal in 1703, Kingston became Jamaica's leading commercial city. It has suffered from urban unrest as well as damage from severe hurricanes and an earthquake in 1907. Kingston is famed for its lively calypsos and its relics of buccaneering days. In the suburb of Mona are the Univ. of the West Indies and the Royal Botanical Gardens, noted especially for their orchids.

Kingston,

town, capital of the Australian territory of Norfolk IslandNorfolk Island
, island (2016 pop. 1,748), 13 sq mi (34 sq km), South Pacific, a territory of Australia, c.1,035 mi (1,670 km) NE of Sydney. Its capital is Kingston. Now a resort, Norfolk has luxuriant vegetation and is known for its "pine" trees, which are not true pines but
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, located on the island's S coast, on Emily Bay. Kingston is the administrative and historic center of Norfolk Island; its commercial center is nearby Burnt Pine. Tourism is the mainstay of the local economy. Citrus and passion fruit are grown. The area that is now Kingston was the 1788 landing site of the first 23 European settlers, a group that included 15 convicts. The settlement subsequently became the center of the notorious Norfolk Island penal colony, which operated until 1855. Many prison buildings have been restored and are now tourist attractions.

Kingston.

1 City (1990 pop. 23,095), seat of Ulster co., SE N.Y., on the Hudson River at the mouth of Rondout Creek; inc. as a village 1805, and as a city through the union (1872) of Kingston and Rondout. A tourist hub for the Catskill-Shawangunk resort area, it has plants that make data acquisition and control systems, ships, conveyors and separators for sand and gravel, hydraulic and filter systems, electronics, machines, boilers, and draperies and textiles. The city is also a market for nearby fruit and vegetable farms (especially apples).

The first permanent settlement (called Wiltwyck) was established in 1652. Kingston served as the first capital of New York state until it was burned by the British in Oct., 1777. Its growth in the early 19th cent. was stimulated by the Delaware and Hudson CanalDelaware and Hudson Canal
, former waterway, 108 mi (174 km) long, between Honesdale, Pa., and Eddyville, N.Y. (now in Kingston), linking the Delaware and Hudson rivers; built 1825–28 to move coal from the Pennsylvania fields to New York markets.
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. Among notable landmarks are many old Dutch stone houses; the senate house (1676), meeting place of the first New York state legislature; the old Dutch church (1659) and cemetery (1661); the burial place of James ClintonClinton, James,
1733–1812, American Revolutionary general, b. Orange co., N.Y.; brother of George Clinton and father of De Witt Clinton. He served in the French and Indian Wars and early in the Revolution took part in the disastrous Quebec campaign.
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; and nearby "Slabsides," the former cottage of John BurroughsBurroughs, John,
1837–1921, American naturalist and author, b. Roxbury, N.Y.; son of a farmer. He was a journalist, a treasury clerk in Washington, and a bank examiner, before settling in 1874 on a farm near Esopus, N.Y. There he studied fruit culture and literature.
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.

2 Borough (1990 pop. 14,507), Luzerne co., NE Pa., on the Susquehanna River opposite Wilkes-Barre; settled 1769, inc. 1857. Although chiefly residential, it has food-products, textiles and apparel, machinery, and furniture industries.

Kingston

 

a city in and the capital of Jamaica. Located on the southern coast of the island of Jamaica, near the edge of a bay. The climate is tropical and humid. The mean January temperature is 24.3°C, and in July it is 27.6°C. Precipitation is 700 mm a year. The city has a population of 117,400 (1970); if St. Andrew and the suburban area are included, the population is 555,700 (1969). Kingston and St. Andrew form an independent administrative unit. The population elects a city council for a three-year term; deputies of Kingston from the lower house of the Jamaican Parliament are also members of the city council.

Founded by the English in the middle of the 17th century, Kingston was the largest slave-trading center in the West Indies. After Port Royal, the main city of Jamaica, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1692, most of the inhabitants moved to Kingston. In 1703, Kingston was devastated by a fire. Later it became the economic center and chief port of the island, and in 1872, the capital of Jamaica. In 1907, Kingston was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake, and most of the buildings of Old English architecture were severely damaged. At the end of the 1930’s the city became the center of anticolonial actions and major strikes. In 1962 the independence of Jamaica was proclaimed in Kingston.

Kingston is the industrial, commercial, and cultural center of the nation. It is a rail and highway junction. Almost all the imports and a significant part of the exports (sugar, rum, coffee, and bananas) pass through the port of Kingston. Most of the enterprises are in the food, textile, garment, leather and footwear, and wood-products industries. The city has an oil refinery and a metalworking plant; there is a cement plant in the suburb of Rockfort. Palisadoes is Kingston’s international airport.

Located in Kingston are five faculties of the University of the West Indies (with students from Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Bahamas and other Caribbean islands). Attached to the university are a library and six institutes (such as the Institute of Education, the Institute of International Relations, and the Institute of Social and Economic Research, as well as a hospital that is the largest medical facility in the country). Among the scientific institutions are the Medical Consultative Council; the College of Arts, Science, and Technology; the Scientific Research Council; and the Institute of Jamaica (with a public library, an art gallery, and natural history, art, and history museums).


Kingston

 

a city in southern Canada, in Ontario. Population, 61,900 (1971). It is a railroad junction and port on Lake Ontario, through which grain and timber are exported. There are grain elevators. The chief industries are nonferrous metallurgy (using nearby polymetal ores), the building of transport machinery, and the production of textiles and ceramics. Kingston is the site of a university.

Kingston

1. the capital and chief port of Jamaica, on the SE coast: University of the West Indies. Pop.: 574 000 (2005 est.)
2. a port in SE Canada, in SE Ontario: the chief naval base of Lake Ontario and a large industrial centre; university (1841). Pop.: 108 158 (2001)
3. short for Kingston upon Thames
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