Kipchak

Kipchak

 

(Cuman, or Polovtsian), the language of the Po-lovtsy, or Cuman, Kipchaks—the main body of a tribal union that appeared in Eastern Europe in the mid-tenth century and occupied vast territory in the east (Central Asian steppe of Desht-i Kypchak) and west (Black Sea steppes, and later the Crimea and part of the Balkan peninsula).

The Kipchak language, as well as modern Karaim, Kumyk, and several other languages, is related to the Kipchak-Polovtsian subgroup of the Kipchak group of Turkic languages. The phonetic structure of Kipchak is characterized by instability of the correspondences [s/s] in words of the type tas/tash “stone” and the preferred use of [j ] at the beginning of a word instead of [ž/dž] as in the other Turkic languages. The grammatical structure is characterized by the parallel use of participial forms in -ur/-ür and -ar/-er, and by the activization of action nouns in -maq/-mek instead of forms in -uŭ/-űŭ . Kipchak vocabulary contains a significant number of borrowings from the Oghuz language.

Data on the language of the Cumans, or Polovtsy, of the pre-Mongol period (11th to first half of the 13th century) are given in Mahmud of Kashgari’s Dictionary of Turkic Dialects. More significant records of the Kipchak language date from the post-Mongol period (second half of the 13th century to the 16th century). The most important Kipchak record is the Codex Cumanicus (published by T. Klaproth in 1828), a late 13th century Latin-Persian-Cuman dictionary.

REFERENCES

Radlov, V. V. O iazyke kumanov: Po povodu izdaniia kumanskogo slovaria. St. Petersburg, 1884.
Codex Cumanicus. Edited by K. Grønbech. Copenhagen, 1936.
Grønbech, K. Komanisches Wörterhuch. Copenhagen, 1942.
References in periodicals archive ?
The festive charity banquet was held in the mosque of the Kipchak village.
The origin of the term dynes indirectly testifies to it, because Chinese have signaled indigenous of Altai as dinlinam, they were the related tribes of kipchak, they were Caucasians of a special trunk, shamanism, which disseminated on the southeast too, was developed in their limits and in cults.
Jinghua's family has been killed, and the story begins with her already a slave of the Kipchak Khanate.
He swept across the Mongol Khanates; first demolishing the Chagatai states up to the lower Siberia in the Lake Balkhash region and then the Kipchak states across the Urals and the Don River to eastern Ukraine and Crimea.
After cleaning the money, it became clear that they were copper coins and belonged to the Atabeys era, a dynasty of Kipchak origin that controlled most of northwestern Persia including Arran, most of Azerbaijan, and Djibal.
"This Indian plant species cannot be native here." Nearby lay the ruins of Uvek, a trading center of the Kipchak Khanate, destroyed by Tirnur in 1395.
Tin and tin products plant at Kipchak area of Ashgabat and Ak Bugday district of Ahal province -- will produce 72 million syringes, fully meeting local demand and with export potential
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And when one takes this more modern approach, it is possible to follow the point of view of one of the most important Tatar intellectuals (and an advisor to the first Tatar President, Mintimer Shamaiev), Rafael Khakimov: he analyzes the Russian state not as a Slav project, but rather as a Tatar-Russian one, born already from the time of the Kipchak Khanate (another name of the Golden Horde).