# Kirchhoff's voltage law

## Kirchhoff's voltage law

[′kərk‚hōfs ′vōl·tij ‚lȯ]
(electricity)
The law that at each instant of time the algebraic sum of the voltage rises around a closed loop in a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the voltage drops, both being taken in the same direction around the loop. Also known as Kirchhoff's second law.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Then, Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) are applied to the circuit encompassing the entire section length, and we obtain the following:
Based on the three fundamental equations of circuit theory, Kirchhoff 's Current Law, Ohm's Law, and Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, one can also get an equivalent system of (5) [15,19].
As per Kirchhoff's voltage law and Ohms law, the output voltage of the PV cell plus the voltage of the equivalent series resistance is equal to the voltage of the equivalent shunt resistance, so [I.sub.sh] can be described as

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