Difference in densities for sintered alloys, before annealing and after annealing (without MA treating of the starting powders), can be attributed to gaps made by Kirkendall effect
during solution treatment.
A novel method was reported for the fabrication of porous TiAl alloys by the Kirkendall effect, with pore size distribution controlled readily from micrometers to nanometers .
From Figure 2(b), porous structures were formed after sintering due to the Kirkendall effect, being similar with the fabrication of porous TiAl .
They cover linear and nonlinear diffusion; the Kirkendall effect
and inverse Kirkendall effect
; ripening among nano-precipitates; spinodal decomposition; nucleation events in bulk materials, thin films, and nanowires; contact reactions on silicon: plane, line, and point contact reactions; grain growth in microscale and nanoscale; self-sustaining reactions in nanoscale multi-layered thin films; and the formation and transformations of nanotwins in copper.
Besides OA mechanism, the well-known physical phenomenon Ostwald ripening and Kirkendall effect have been widely employed in template-free fabrication of porous nanostructures [44-47].
Alivisatos, "Reaction regimes on the synthesis of hollow particles by the Kirkendall effect," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.
The central role in the diffusion theory of multicomponent systems plays the Kirkendall effect , i.e., the discovery that drift in solids can be generated by diffusion.
van Too, "Intrinsic diffusion and Kirkendall effect in Ni-Pd and Fe-Pd solid solutions," Acta Materialia, vol.
After this, due to the Kirkendall effect
, voids are formed near the interface region, which further diminishes the mechanical property, as illustrated in Figure 3(d) [60-64].
Various method have been developed to achieve these special structures, which involve hard templates or soft templates (PEG , CTAB ), as well as physical/chemical processes based on Kirkendall effect
, Ostwald ripening , oriented attachment , and so forth.
Paul, The kirkendall effect
in solid state diffusion [Ph.D.