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Vyatka(vyät`kə), city (1989 pop. 440,000), capital of Kirov region, central European Russia, on the Vyatka River. It is a river port and an industrial center that produces machinery and metalwork, chemicals, wood products, and armaments. The 17th-century cathedral and a library (1837) founded by Aleksandr HerzenHerzen, Aleksandr Ivanovich
, 1812–70, Russian revolutionary leader and writer. A member of the aristocracy, he was appalled at the brutality of his class, the lack of freedom at all levels of Russian society, and the terrible poverty of the serfs.
..... Click the link for more information. , who was an exile in the city, are notable.
Founded in 1174 as Khlynov by Novgorod colonists, it was fortified against Votyak (Udmurt) and Cheremiss (Mari) attacks. It soon became the capital of an independent republic which was annexed to Moscow by Ivan III in 1489. Its location made for favorable trade conditions with Ustyug, the Volga region, and Arkhangelsk. In the 17th cent. it grew in importance because it was on the road from Moscow to Siberia. The city was renamed Vyatka in 1780, and Kirov (for S. M. KirovKirov, Sergei Mironovich
, 1888–1934, Russian Soviet leader. He fought in the civil war of 1918–20 and rose to power as one of Stalin's most trusted aides. A member of the Communist party Politburo from 1930, he was secretary of the party at Leningrad (now St.
..... Click the link for more information. ) in 1934. In the 19th cent. it was used as a place of political exile.
(prior to 1934, Viatka; renamed in honor of S. M. Kirov), a city and the center of Kirov Oblast, RSFSR. Extending 20 km along the banks of the Viatka River, it is a major railroad junction (lines to Gorky-Moscow, Kotlas, and Perm’) and river port. Population, 349,000 (1972; 25,000 in 1897, 62,000 in 1926, and 252,000 in 1959).
Kirov was first mentioned (as Khlynov) in a chronicle in 1457, although it had existed as a Novgorodian settlement and military fortress since 1374. Incorporated into the Muscovite state in 1489, it became part of the Siberian Province in 1708 and of Kazan Province in 1727. In 1781, Khlynov was renamed Viatka, and when Viatka Province was formed in 1796, the town became its administrative center, with relatively well developed leather, fur, footwear, and lumber industries and small metalworking enterprises.
In 1916 the city had only 44 registered factories, with about 2,500 employees. In the tsarist period it was a place of political exile, to which A. I. Herzen, M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, and the architect A. L. Vitberg were banished. In 1903, the Viatka Committee of the RSDLP was founded. Soviet power was proclaimed on Nov. 25 (Dec. 8), 1917. In 1929, the city was incorporated into Nizhny Novgorod Krai, and in 1934, with the renaming of Viatka as Kirov, it became the center of Kirov Krai; since 1936, it has been the center of Kirov Oblast. Under the prewar five-year plans, new large enterprises and entire industries arose in the city, and existing plants and factories were reconstructed and enlarged.
During the war and postwar years, along with the growth of industries founded before the Revolution, new sectors began to develop rapidly, including machine building, metalworking, and chemicals. The gross industrial product of Kirov increased 39.3 times between 1940 and 1971. The largest enterprises are the First of May Machine-building Plant, the Lepse Machine-building Plant, the 22nd Party Congress Machine-building Plant, the Krin instruments plant, plants manufacturing machine tools, soil-tilling machinery, physics instruments (Fizpribor), sports equipment, electrical applicances, tires, and synthetic building materials, and a plant processing nonferrous metals. The city also has leather footwear, leather and fur, artificial leather (Iskozh), textile, furniture, wood-products, and meat-packing combines and factories producing matches and musical instruments. Plants for the production of biochemicals, reinforced-concrete structural components, and large panels used in housing were under construction in 1973.
Kirov is famous for its toys, known as Dymkovo toys, and kapo-koreshok wood articles. Since 1784 the town has been built according to a regular layout. Architectural monuments include the Uspenskii Cathedral of the Trifon Monastery (1689), the buildings in the municipal garden (1835–39; A. L. Vitberg, architect), and a number of residential houses in the classical style dating from the 18th and the early 19th century. In the Soviet period Kirov has been rebuilt with many improvements; in 1970 a long-range developmental plan was approved. The main streets and squares have been rebuilt to open onto the river, modern residential areas have sprung up in the northern and southwestern sections of the city, and a drama theater and house of Soviets have been built.
Kirov has pedagogical, agricultural, and polytechnic institutes and eight specialized secondary schools, including mechanical engineering technicums for the light and dairy industries, an engineering school, and a polytechnic. Museums include a museum of local lore and an art museum (building from the end of the 18th and early 19th century; architect, I. Dussaurt de Neuville). The city has drama, puppet, and young people’s theaters and a television center.
REFERENCESEmmausskii, A. V. Istoricheskii ocherk Viatskogo kraia XVII-XVIII vv. [Kirov] 1956.
Gorod Kirov [2nd ed.]. Kirov, 1959. (Guide.)
Krutilin, S. Gorod na Viatke-reke. Moscow, 1959.
Goroda Kirovskoi oblasti. Kirov, 1968.
G. A. BUSHMELEV, P. F. ZLOBIN, and A. A. SUDARIKOVA
(until 1936, the settlement of Pesochnia), a city in Kaluga Oblast, RSFSR, situated on the Bolva River, a tributary of the Desna. It has a railroad station (Faiansovaia), 160 km southwest of Kaluga. Population, 29,000 (1970). The city was founded in 1745 at the site of a metalworking factory, now an iron foundry. Other industries include plants producing building ceramics, bricks, and reinforced-concrete structural components, a meat-packing combine, a dairy, and a garment factory. There is also an evening industrial technicum.
a cruiser of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet (the fleet has been twice awarded the Red Banner). It was commissioned on Sept. 28, 1938. Displacement, 8,600 tons; cruising speed, 35 knots; length, 187 m; width, 18 m, and draft, 5.2 m. It is armed with nine 180-mm guns, eight 100-mm guns, and 16 37-mm antiaircraft guns as well as two three-tube torpedo launchers and 170 mines. The Kirov saw service in the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939–40. In the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 it provided artillery support for the Soviet troops at Tallinn (in 1941) and Leningrad (1941–44). It participated in the liberation of the Karelian Isthmus (1944). Every year it is the flagship in holiday celebrations on the Neva. In the summer of 1967 it made a cruise to Sweden. The Kirov has always been sponsored by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR. It was awarded the Order of the Red Banner in 1943.
REFERENCESBaltiiskii flot. Moscow, 1960.
Savin, A. A., and I. V. Ozimov. “Iz istorii sovetskogo korablestroeniia (Kreisera).” Morskoi sbornik, 1966, no. 12.
Zverev, B. I. “Sovetskie moriaki ν Stokgol’me.” Morskoi sbornik, 1967, no. 9.