The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(from Turkic kyshlak, literally “winter hut”), a settlement in Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan.

Before the October Revolution of 1917,kishlaki were either permanent settlements or the winter domiciles of a seminomadic population. Kishlaki were categorized according to how they were grouped as follows: (1) cluster kishlak, where several kishlaki were merged or were grouped close to one another; these were known collectively by a single name and constituted a single commune, although each small unit had its own name and mosque and was settled by a single family-kin group; (2) large kishlak, which resulted when the first type expanded, the small units forming blocks of a single settlement; and (3) scattered kishlak, which comprised separate farmsteads located at considerable distances from one another but united into a single commune by the common irrigation of their fields by one canal. The houses in most kishlaki were crowded together, and there were winding little streets and culs-de-sac. In the mountain kishlaki, the buildings were constructed in tiers. Before unification with Russia, many of the larger kishlaki were enclosed by a wall. They were governed by elders who were protégés of the nobility.

In Soviet times, a complete transformation of the kishlaki has taken place. Contemporary kolkhoz and sovkhoz settlements do not differ from urban-type settlemens in layout or utilities. According to the Constitution, the inhabitants of kishlaki elect their own executive organs, the kishlak soviets of working people’s deputies.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sergei Abashin, Sovetskii kishlak: Mezhdu kolonializmom i modernizatsiei (The Soviet Kishlak: Between Colonialism and Modernization).
Sergei Abashin's book is a study of Oshoba, one "Uzbek" village or kishlak (original meaning: winter settlement) in a part of the Ferghana Valley that nowadays belongs to Tajikistan.
They supported Soviet power in the kishlak, learned Russian and the ideological language of the state (269).
And on the other hand, the chapters collectively intend to illuminate two contradictory trends in the valley: 1) "unity in diversity" as the reference to Sasha Kuprin who is one of the Fergana poets illustrates: "words like kishlak (village), aryk (irrigation canal), chinar (oriental plane tree), bazaar, chaikhane (teahouse) and plov (pilaf) are not mere fragments of exotic vocabulary but worlds through which we experience a common time and destiny" (p.293); and 2) "diversity in unity" that reveals in the overlapping dual lives, languages, identities and loyalties existing in Fergana along with different fault lines in the Fergana states (especially chapters 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 13).
We were to be inserted by the helicopters 45 km south of kishlak (Village) "Karamugul," make a 10 km hike on foot to the anticipated convoy route and intercept another "Muj" re-supply convoy.
In one such suburb, Dekhkan Kishlak, locals said they had been beaten by security forces and their jewellery and money stolen during a raid Monday.
In one such district, Dekhkan Kishlak, around 1,500 refugees were crammed into houses.
(54) For a recent study on how these investments affected life at the local level in this period, see Sergei Abashin, Sovetskii kishlak mezhdu kolonializmom i modernizatsiei (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2015).