The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the remains of a Balto-Finnic settlement of the third to the sixth centuries on the northern shore of Lake Cirmas in Ludza Raion, Latvian SSR. The site was investigated by the Soviet archaeologist E. D. ၠņore.

The remains of dwellings with hearths were discovered in the cultural level measuring up to 1.2 m thick; some were dug into the ground and some were built directly on the ground. The principal occupations of the inhabitants of Kivtu were farming and stock raising; they also engaged in hunting and fishing. The working of iron and bronze was carried on in the settlement. The discovery of a large number of the so-called textile pottery attests to extensive relations with the tribes of the D’iakovo culture. From the eighth to the 12th century, a stone burial ground of the Latgali existed on the site of the settlement (175 burials have been investigated).


Šņore, E., and I. Cimermane. “Poselenie i mogil’nik v Kivty (Vostochnaia Latviia).” In the collection Ot epokhi bronzy do rannego feodalizma. Tallinn, 1966.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.