Kizilbash

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kizilbash

 

(Turkish for “redheads,” after the hats with 12 scarlet stripes in honor of the 12 Shiite imams, worn by members), Turkish tribal alliance of Azerbaijanian nomads in Asia Minor and Azerbaijan.

The Kizilbashi received their name in the second half of the 15th century. They were the chief military bastion of the Shiite order of Safawi. Along with the Safawid sheikhs, they led attacks on neighboring non-Muslim countries, including Georgia and the Trebizond empire. Taking advantage of the weakening of the Ak-Koyunlu state, the Kizilbashi destroyed the state at the start of the 16th century. Their military leader, Ismail Safawid (Ismail I), was proclaimed shah in 1502. This date marks the founding of the Safawid state. In this state, the Kizilbashi aristocracy occupied the predominant positions until the end of the 16th century. The main officials at court, the viceroys of regions, and military commanders came from its ranks; in its hands was concentrated an enormous land fund. The political importance of the Kizilbashi and their military units declined sharply after the military reform of Shah Abbas I in the late 16th century, when the regular army was created. In Russian official documents of the 16th and 17th centuries, all subjects of the Safawid state were called Kizilbashi.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another bronze medal was also secured by seniors team having Ghalib Bandesha, Izzat Khalil, Ghias Malik, Safdar Mehmood and Anwar Kizilbash. The BFAME Bridge Championship was held at Amman, Jordan and Ghalib Bandesha, chef de mission of the Pakistan team, informed that the arrangements for holding this championship were outstanding and the majestic touch was evident and Pakistani contingent made a huge impact as bridge players of international standing.
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That was when red-turbaned Kizilbash (pronounced Qizilbash) guarded the monarchy of the first Safawi dynasty in Persia.
While the team event commenced to decide the champions for this year, the Pairs Event came to a conclusion after three sessions and 72 boards with the absolute and pivotal winners Anis ur Rehman and Anwer Mumtaz Kizilbash of Karachi.
Eminent physician and cancer researcher Dr Noor-e-Alam Kizilbash (Sitara-e-Imtiaz) would be the Guest of Honour at the Social Media Summit.
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Zahid MF, Khan N, Hashmi SK, Kizilbash SH, Barta SK.
Not only do researchers question the short duration of these programs, but they also have expressed serious reservations about the quality of these programs, especially their content, methodology, relevance, and implementation in real life situations (UNESCO, 2003; Kizilbash, 1998; Warwick and Reimers, 1995).
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