Klein, Yves,1928–62, French painter. With critic Pierre Restany, he was a leader of the avant-garde movement called Nouveau Réalisme (founded 1960). In the 1950s Klein began to work in monochromes, creating abstract paintings in various single hues, and from 1957 on he worked only in a powdery textured ultramarine blue he called International Klein Blue (IKB), a color he created in 1956. He was perhaps best known for using nude models as "living paintbrushes," covering them in IKB and rolling or pressing them onto paper or canvas to make paintings. Other Klein creations included The Void, an empty art gallery; a photograph of the artist leaping blithely into space; fountains made of water and flame; and paintings created with flame throwers or by exposing canvas to rainy weather. Many consider him a pioneer of minimalismminimalism,
schools of contemporary art and music, with their origins in the 1960s, that have emphasized simplicity and objectivity. Minimalism in the Visual Arts
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art movement that began in the 1960s and stresses the artist's concept rather than the art object itself. Growing out of minimalism, conceptual art turned the artist's thoughts and ideas themselves into the primary artistic medium, appealing to the spectator's
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K. Ottmann, ed., Overcoming the Problematics of Art: The Writings of Yves Klein (2007); studies by H. Weitemeier (2001), P. Noever and F. Perrin (2004), P. Restany (2d ed., 2005), K. Ottmann (2010), R. Pincus-Witten and R. Klein-Moquey (2010), and K. Brougher et al. (museum catalog, 2010).