Knitting, Machine

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Knitting, Machine


the production of knitted cloth and goods from continuous threads by bending them into interwoven loops. The link between the loops and their mutual positions is determined by the type of interweaving.

Machine knitting is accomplished by two basic methods: horizontal knitting and foundation knitting. In the horizontal knitting a continuous thread is consecutively wound into loops of one row, which forms the knitted cloth when it is joined with the previous row; in foundation knitting the loop row is formed by a system of threads (the foundation), placed simultaneously on all the working needles of the machine. The loops from the same thread are not arranged in one row but move consecutively from row to row. There are single knitting machines (with one needle) and double ones (with two needles); depending upon the type of needles used they are subdivided into machines with hook, tongue, or groove needles. There are flat or round knitting machines, depending on the shape of the needles, and one-system or multisystem designs, depending upon the number of loop-forming units.

There are four basic types of knitting machines, depending upon their purpose: stocking machines (round-or flat-needle machines), underwear machines, outer knitwear machines, arid glove machines. Each group contains machines of different types and purposes (for smooth or patterned knitting, for instance). There are also special knitting machines for making such items as berets, corsets, or artificial furs. The most commonly used knitting fibers are cotton, wool, synthetic fibers, and mixes. Knitting machines can make up to 2 million loops per minute. The worker who services the knitting machine only has to control the continuous feeding of thread and the quality of the goods, service the machine, and correct small faults in its operation.


Dalidovich, A. S. Osnovy teorii viazaniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Lipkov, I. A. Tekhnologiia trikotazhnogo proizvodstva, 2nd ed.Moscow, 1963.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.