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knowledge

(artificial intelligence, information science)
The objects, concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some area of interest. A collection of knowledge, represented using some knowledge representation language is known as a knowledge base and a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base is a knowledge-based system.

Knowledge differs from data or information in that new knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical inference. If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing.

A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a Prolog program, is a collection of facts and rules about some subject.

For example, a knowledge base about a family might contain the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson. From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is David's grandson.

See also Knowledge Level.

Knowledge

 

the result of cognition of reality verified in practice; the true reflection of reality in the consciousness of man.

Knowledge is the opposite of ignorance, the absence of verified information about something. Elementary knowledge resulting from biological regularities is characteristic of animals as well, for whom it serves as a necessary condition for the vital activity of the organism and for the realization of its behavioral activity. Knowledge may be everyday, prescientific, artistic, or scientific; scientific knowledge is subdivided into empirical and theoretical. As a rule, everyday knowledge is limited to the statement and description of facts. Scientific knowledge ascends to the level of explanation of facts and their comprehension in a system of concepts of a given science; it is included within a theory. The essence of scientific knowledge consists in understanding reality in its past, present, and future; in reliably generalizing from facts; in dis-covering necessary and regular laws behind random occurrences and general patterns behind singular events; and on such a basis, in foreseeing phenomena. Human thought is constantly advancing from ignorance to knowledge, from superficial to increasingly more profound and comprehensive knowledge.

A. G. SPIRKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
As tres teorias (Agency Theory, Social Network Theory e Organizational Knowlege Creation) possuem a relacao entre individuos como centralidade.
Brought up in a family which treasured knowlege, Prof Prahalad completed his education from Loyola College Chennai, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad and Harvard Business School.
Reached by The Texas Tribune Tuesday night, Van Overschelde said he left the TEA in June and had no knowlege of the Laredo ISD data.
Durham Graphene Science won the Knowlege Transfer award at this year's Blueprint Awards, which celebrate the region's most promising university spin-outs.
The revision provides improved granularity for classes of knowledge, making it a more complete template for surveying a set of activities and for engaging students in how they think and use knowlege (metacognition).
1) George Berkeley, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowlege, Dublin, Jeremy Pepyat, 1710.
MANCHESTER, June 8 -- England have prevented Australia gaining first-hand knowlege of Steven Finn ahead of the Ashes by ruling him out of the one-day series with Ricky Ponting's world champions which starts later this month.
Mathias is available, has first hand knowlege of the squad from attending home games on a regular basis and would welcome the challenge of trying to guide Rovers out of the League One danger zone.
Read more about the study in the next Newsletter, and on Navy Knowlege Online (NKO) in the Supply Corps Community of Practice.
They who wou'd do that, must have a more exact Knowlege of Human Nature, a greater Experience of the World, and of those differences which arise from Constitution, Age, Education, receiv'd Opinions, outward Fortune, Custom and Conversation, than I can pretend to.