The coaxial source was heated by radiation coming from a cylindrical graphite heater and the precursors were co-evaporated in an atmosphere of elemental sulfur evaporated from a Knudsen cell. The CZTS films were deposited on glass substrates or on others coated with a Mo layer using the system as shown in Figure 2a.
ii) An evaporation chamber which included a coaxial evaporation source to simultaneously evaporate Cu, Sn and ZnS, a Knudsen cell to evaporate sulfur, a substrate heating system and a quartz crystal used as a transducer to monitor the flow of the evaporated metallic precursors.
iii) PID controllers to control the temperature of the substrate, the coaxial source, and the Knudsen cell.
This adaptation enables application of holder with Knudsen cell. The resulting configuration is capable of detecting extra-low gas pressures in metals and alloys.
The device enables to apply following instrumental methods: heat flow differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Knudsen cell combined with mass spectrometry (KC/MS).
The STA 409 / QMS (403/5) apparatus can be used for special measurement using Knudsen cell. This equipment consists of special single alumina crucible (Knudsen cell) covered by lid with small orifice.
The equilibrate sample gas phase is jetted from Knudsen cell into ionisation chamber of mass spectrometer.
Contract notice: Design and supply of components for a knudsen cell
mass spectrometer source - cnrs umr5276 lyon geology laboratory (lgl).
At a later time the system is to be extended to allow for the thermal evaporation by means of Knudsen cells
. The extension itself is the responsibility of the ETH and is not part of this tender.