The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



city and port in northwestern Poland, in Koszalin Województwo, on the Baltic coast. Population, 25,900 (1971). The city is a railroad junction, and its chief industries are fishing and fish processing.

In the seventh and eighth centuries the settlement of Salt Island existed on the site of KoƗobrzeg. In the mid-9th century a Pomeranian castle was built here, and in the year 1000, Boleslaw the Brave founded a bishopric in KoƗobrzeg. In the 11th century the city was the capital of one of the Pomeranian principalities. At the beginning of the 12th century it came under the rule of Boleslaw the Wry-mouthed. In 1255, KoƗobrzeg received an urban charter and thereafter was Germanized (German name KoƗberg). At the beginning of the 14th century the city joined the Hanseatic League. Under the terms of the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, it was annexed by Brandenburg. Until 1873 it was a fortress.

During the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) it was unsuccessfully besieged by Russian forces in 1758 and 1760. The Russian Army made a third attempt to take KoƗobrzeg in 1761. On August 8 (19) a corps under the command of General P. A. Rumiantsev (about 22,000 men and 70 guns) attacked KoƗobrzeg, supported by the Baltic Fleet under Vice Admiral A. I. Polianskii (19 ships of the line, two frigates, three bombardiers and about 7,000 men). Employing a new tactic, Rumiantsev combined an extended formation with battalion columns on the rugged terrain. His troops, with the support of the fleet artillery and landing force, took the fortified Prussian camp (12,000 men under the command of the Prince of Württemberg) defending the approaches to KoƗobrzeg. The Russian forces repulsed the Prussian field troops (15,000–20,000 men) covering the roads into the city and on September 3 (14) began a siege that ended on Dec. 5 (16), 1761, with the surrender of the KoƗobrzeg garrison of 4,000 men and 140 guns.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), Soviet and Polish troops besieged KoƗobrzeg during the Eastern Pomeranian Operation of 1945. The Polish First Army captured the city after heavy fighting between March 8 and 18. Along with the other Western Polish lands, it was reunited with Poland in 1945.

KoƗobrzeg is a seaside climatic resort with a marine, mild, and moderately humid climate. Summers are warm (mean August temperature of 19°C) and winters short and mild (mean February temperature — 1.5°C); annual precipitation is 650 mm. Therapeutic facilities include hydrotherapy, aerotherapy, and heliotherapy, and the area’s sodium chloride springs are used for baths. There is sea bathing from the middle of June to the beginning of September and a wide beach with fine sand.

Treatment is provided for patients with functional disturbances of the nervous system, nontubercular ailments of the respiratory organs, and anemias. Sanatoriums, hydropathic establishments, and houses of rest are maintained.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.