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a fortress in the Ukraine, on the right bank of the Dnieper at the Kodak rapids (the present-day village of Starye Kaidaki, near Dnepropetrovsk). The Polish government built Kodak in 1635 in order to strengthen its hold over the Ukrainian territory along the Dnieper and to consolidate its military and economic control over the operations of the Zaporozh’e Cossacks. In 1635 the Zaporozn’e Cossacks headed by I. M. Sulima took the fortress by storm and destroyed it. Kodak was rebuilt by the Polish feudal lords in 1639. In the fall of 1648, Colonel M. Nesterenko’s cossack detachment, which had been sent by Bogdan Khmel’nitskii, seized Kodak, which then became a cos-sack base. Kodak was among the fortresses pulled down in 1711 in fulfillment of the terms of the Peace of Prut between Turkey and Russia.
REFERENCEGolobutskii, V. A. Zaporozhskoe kazachestvo. Kiev, 1957. Pages 216–21, 248–49.
(Eastman Kodak Company), an American concern, the leading monopoly in the production of cameras and materials for motion pictures and still photography. Kodak also produces chemicals, artificial fibers, and specialized military apparatus. It arose from a firm founded in 1880 by G. Eastman and transformed in 1901 into a joint-stock company. Kodak has close ties with the Morgan financial group. Kodak controls production enterprises in Canada, Great Britain, France, Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico and has sales departments in almost every capitalist country. Its capital totaled $2,429.7 million in 1971, and its assets amounted to $3,298 million. Sales increased from $1,229.9 million in 1961 to $2,975.9 million in 1971, and the net profit correspondingly increased from $147.2 million to $419.3 million. In 1971, 65,700 workers were employed in Kodak enterprises in the US; including the enterprises in other countries, Kodak employed 110,700 people.
O. N. VOLKOV