Kokand Khanate

Kokand Khanate

 

a feudal state in Middle Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was located in the Fergana Valley; its capital was the city of Kokand.

The Kokand khans were descended from the Uzbek tribe of Ming. Circa 1710 the founder of the dynasty, Shahruk-bey, formed a small domain independent of the emirate of Bukhara. Under his grandson, Yodan-bey (Iodan-bey), who died about 1774, the Kokand khanate (comprising the Andizhan, Namangan, Margelan, and Kokand domains) was finally separated from Bukhara as a result of intense struggle with its neighbors. In 1758 the khanate was considered an independent state in Bukhara. The Kokand khanate attained its greatest political power and territorial expansion under the khans Alim (1800–09), Omar (1809–22), and Muhammad Ali (Madali, 1822–42). The khanate annexed the cities of Tashkent, Khodzhent, Karategin, Darvaz, Kuliab, and Alai. The khans constructed a series of strong fortresses on their frontiers with the Kazakh domains, including Ak-Mechet (now Kzyl-Orda), Aulie-Ata (Dzhambul), and Pishpek (Frunze). Handicraft production developed, for the most part of silk and cotton articles, which were exported. Cotton and rice were the principal agricultural crops.

Disturbances and popular uprisings against the despotism of the Kokand khans enabled the emir of Bukhara, Nasrullah, to strike significant blows against the khanate in 1839 and 1841–42 and to seize a number of provinces, including Tashkent and Khodzhent; a Bukharan viceroy was appointed to Kokand. The residents of Fergana summoned Shir Ali Khan (1842–45), the cousin of Alim Khan, to drive out the Bukharan officials. After repelling a new on-slaught by Nasrullah, Shir Ali Khan consolidated his power in Kokand and subsequently won back Khodzhent and Tashkent.

In the mid-19th century, tsarism began its conquest of Middle Asia. On May 17, 1865, Russian troops occupied Tashkent, and on May 24, 1866, Khodzhent. The loss of these vast lands forced the ruler of the Kokand khanate, Khudayar Khan, to raise taxes, which led to increased discontent among the people and some feudal lords, resulting in the Kokand Rebellion of 1873–76. The uprising finally undermined the Kokand khanate from within. In two months, the Russian troops crushed the insurgents. On Feb. 19, 1876, the Kokand khanate was abolished and the Fergana Region was formed in its place, becoming part of the Turkestan Governor-Generalship of the Russian Empire.

REFERENCES

Istoriia Uzbekskoi SSR, vol. 1. Tashkent, 1967.
Khalfin, N. A. Politika Rossii v Srednei Azii (1857–1868). Moscow, 1960.
Ivanov, P. P. Ocherki po istorii Srednei Azii (XVI-seredina XIX). Moscow, 1958.
Nalivkin, V. Kratkaia istoriia Kokandskogo khanstva. Kazan, 1886.

R. E. KRUPNOVA and A. G. PODOL’SKII

References in periodicals archive ?
The last enduring Islamic state in Central Asia, the Kokand Khanate, was based in the city of Kokand in the Fergana Valley and covered parts of present-day Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
Since the end of the Kokand Khanate, the subsequent states in the Fergana Valley--including Czarist Russia, the Soviet Union, and the independent Central Asian republics--have sought to limit the role of Islam in government and society.
Turkestan was an administrative creation of the Russians from territory that had mainly been part of the Kokand khanate. Initially, in 1865, they had intended to turn the newly conquered city of Tashkent into the nucleus of a puppet khanate under Russian protection, but they rapidly realized that this was not politically feasible, leading to the creation instead of a new administrative unit under direct Russian control, q-he Kokand khanate, reduced to a rump in the Fergana Valley, also survived as a protectorate until 1875, when it was annexed following a revolt directed against the Russian client khan, Khudoyar.
Instead of focusing of such narrations as the (New) Great Game, this book on the one hand tries to analyze the economic, social, political, demographic, ecologic and cultural forces in the region throughout the periods of political unity (as during the times of Kokand Khanate, Tsarist Russia, and the Soviet rule), periods of disintegration (as during the times of independent republics) and transitionary periods (as during the time of Revolution, the perestroika period and the nation and/or state building periods of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyz-stan).
"The report did not mention provocateurs Kadyrzhan Batyrov, Karamat Abdyldaeva and Inom Abdurasulov." "A big shortcoming of the Commission is that the report did not name the main reason of the conflict, which originates from the time of Kokand Khanate when the Kyrgyz had to seek job opportunities from Uzbeks and other ethnic groups.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Kyrgyz tribes gradually came under the control of the Kokand khanate which sought to encourage Muslim proselytization among this unruly people.
the dogmas of the faith."(5) Evidence of this limited attachment was also to be found in the daily life of these nomadic herders where support for age-old customs remained strong and where women enjoyed a more prominent role than their settled counterparts--only here could resistance to the Kokand khanate have been led by the remarkable Kurmanja-datka, widow of a Kyrgyz tribal ruler, who masterminded guerrilla activities during the early 1870s.
The leader of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambaev supported his party member Bakyt Beshimov who said that the incumbent authorities are building Kokand Khanate instead of building a democratic society in his interview for De Facto newspaper on Thursday.Almazbek Atambaev said the administration methods used now in Kyrgyzstan more resemble those used 200 years ago in the Khanate of Kokand, where wildness, barbarism, feudal governance methods wereused.