a feudal state in Middle Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was located in the Fergana Valley; its capital was the city of Kokand.
The Kokand khans were descended from the Uzbek tribe of Ming. Circa 1710 the founder of the dynasty, Shahruk-bey, formed a small domain independent of the emirate of Bukhara. Under his grandson, Yodan-bey (Iodan-bey), who died about 1774, the Kokand khanate (comprising the Andizhan, Namangan, Margelan, and Kokand domains) was finally separated from Bukhara as a result of intense struggle with its neighbors. In 1758 the khanate was considered an independent state in Bukhara. The Kokand khanate attained its greatest political power and territorial expansion under the khans Alim (1800–09), Omar (1809–22), and Muhammad Ali (Madali, 1822–42). The khanate annexed the cities of Tashkent, Khodzhent, Karategin, Darvaz, Kuliab, and Alai. The khans constructed a series of strong fortresses on their frontiers with the Kazakh domains, including Ak-Mechet (now Kzyl-Orda), Aulie-Ata (Dzhambul), and Pishpek (Frunze). Handicraft production developed, for the most part of silk and cotton articles, which were exported. Cotton and rice were the principal agricultural crops.
Disturbances and popular uprisings against the despotism of the Kokand khans enabled the emir of Bukhara, Nasrullah, to strike significant blows against the khanate in 1839 and 1841–42 and to seize a number of provinces, including Tashkent and Khodzhent; a Bukharan viceroy was appointed to Kokand. The residents of Fergana summoned Shir Ali Khan (1842–45), the cousin of Alim Khan, to drive out the Bukharan officials. After repelling a new on-slaught by Nasrullah, Shir Ali Khan consolidated his power in Kokand and subsequently won back Khodzhent and Tashkent.
In the mid-19th century, tsarism began its conquest of Middle Asia. On May 17, 1865, Russian troops occupied Tashkent, and on May 24, 1866, Khodzhent. The loss of these vast lands forced the ruler of the Kokand khanate, Khudayar Khan, to raise taxes, which led to increased discontent among the people and some feudal lords, resulting in the Kokand Rebellion of 1873–76. The uprising finally undermined the Kokand khanate from within. In two months, the Russian troops crushed the insurgents. On Feb. 19, 1876, the Kokand khanate was abolished and the Fergana Region was formed in its place, becoming part of the Turkestan Governor-Generalship of the Russian Empire.
REFERENCESIstoriia Uzbekskoi SSR, vol. 1. Tashkent, 1967.
Khalfin, N. A. Politika Rossii v Srednei Azii (1857–1868). Moscow, 1960.
Ivanov, P. P. Ocherki po istorii Srednei Azii (XVI-seredina XIX). Moscow, 1958.
Nalivkin, V. Kratkaia istoriia Kokandskogo khanstva. Kazan, 1886.
R. E. KRUPNOVA and A. G. PODOL’SKII