While the military ran amok and committed atrocities in foreign areas under its control, members of ultranationalist secret societies such as the Dark Ocean Society (Genyosha) and the Black Dragon Society (Kokuryukai
) and military intelligence agents, such as those from the famed Nakano School, not only gathered information but also engaged in a range of subversive activities that included assassination, spreading propaganda (disinformation), sabotage, and raiding enemy targets.
The paper, which was recently opened up to public view at the National Archives in London, says Tokyo's Muslim policy was spearheaded by members of the Black Dragon Society (Kokuryukai
), a group of Japanese ultranationalists.
Japanese pan-Asianism was the ideal of patriotic and expansionist organizations such as the Genyosha, founded in 1881, and the Kokuryukai, founded in 1901.
Very few Japanese intellectuals expressed an opinion in favour of immediate independence for the Philippines.(13) There were still some remnants of the pan-Asianists of the Genyosha and the Kokuryukai who gave minimal support to General Artemio Ricarte who, instead of pledging allegiance to the U.S.
7 Reprints of the publications of the Kokuryukai are in Kokuryukai kankei shiryo-shu [Collection of Kokuryukai Publications] (Tokyo: Kashiwa Shobo, 1992) 10 vols.
8 On the contacts between Filipino revolutionaries and some members of the Genyosha and the Kokuryukai, Josefa M.