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Kola Peninsula(kō`lə, Rus. kô`lə), peninsula, c.50,000 sq mi (129,500 sq km), NW European Russia, in Murmansk region. Forming an eastern extension of the Scandinavian peninsula, it lies between the Barents Sea to the north and the White Sea to the south. In the northeastern part are tundras; the southwestern area is forested. The peninsula has rich mineral deposits in the Khibiny Mts., which rise to c.4,000 ft (1,220 m). Hydroelectric plants have been built along the Tuloma, Voronya, and Niva rivers. The port of MurmanskMurmansk
, city (1989 pop. 468,000), capital of Murmansk region, NW European Russia, on the Kola Gulf of the Barents Sea. It is the terminus of the Northeast Passage and the world's largest city N of the Arctic Circle, with a polar research institute.
..... Click the link for more information. and the mining center of KirovskKirovsk
, city (1989 pop. 43,500), N European Russia, on the Kola Peninsula. The city is the center of a mining complex that produces apatite and nephelite, raw materials for the superphosphate and aluminum industries. It was founded in 1929 as Khibinogorsk.
..... Click the link for more information. are the major cities of the peninsula. Along the coasts and in the mining centers, the population is primarily Russian; in the interior are Sami (Lapps), who until the ChernobylChernobyl
, Ukr. Chornobyl, abandoned city, N Ukraine, near the Belarus border, on the Pripyat River. Ten miles (16 km) to the north, in the town of Pripyat, is the Chernobyl nuclear power station, site of the worst nuclear reactor disaster in history. On Apr.
..... Click the link for more information. disaster subsisted largely on reindeer raising. Since the 1960s the peninsula has suffered severe ecological degradation from mining and smelting operations. Near Murmansk is the ancient town of Kola, founded in 1264 by Slavs from Novgorod.
a peninsula in the extreme northwest of the European part of the USSR, in Murmansk Oblast, RSFSR. In the north the Kola Peninsula is washed by the waters of the Barents Sea, and in the south and east by the White Sea. Beginning at the western border of the peninsula is a meridional depression extending from the Kola Gulf through the Kola River valley, Lake Imandra, and the Niva River to Kandalaksha Bay. The Kola Peninsula has an area of approximately 100,000 sq km. The northern coast is high and steep, and the southern coast low and gently sloping. In the western part are the mountain massifs of Khibiny and Lovozero tundras (elevations to 1,120m); the Keivy watershed ridge (elevations to 397 m) stretches in the central part along the peninsular axis.
The Kola Peninsula makes up the northeast border of the Baltic Shield and is composed primarily of crystalline Precam-brian and Lower Paleozoic rocks. It can be structurally divided inte four parts: the Murmansk block (on the Barents sea coast), composed of a complex of Archean and Lower Proterozoic rocks; the White Sea block (southwestern and southern section of the peninsula), composed of an Archean White Sea series; the Granulite belt (in the northwest); and the Géosynclinal Karelian Zone of Folding (in the central part), which formed in the Lower and Middle Proterozoic.
There are large deposits of apatite ores (Khibiny); aluminiferous raw materials (Keivy); nickel (Pechenga, Monchetundra); iron ores (Olenegorskoe, Imeni Kirova); mica and ceramic raw materials (Ena, Rikolatva, Strel’na); and titanium magnetite, phlogopite, and vermiculite (Kovdor) on the Kola Peninsula. Ore manifestations of rare and nonferrous metals and rare-earth elements have been discovered.
The climate on the Kola Peninsula, in spite of its northern location, is relatively mild as a result of the influence of a branch of the warm Atlantic Current. The average January temperatures range from — 8°C (on the northern coast) to — 13°C (in the central part), and the July temperatures from 8° to 14°C, respectively. There are many turbulent rivers, full of rapids, with great hydroelectric power potential. The most important are the Ponoi, Varzuga, and Umba rivers of the White Sea basin and the Teriberka, Voron’ia, and Iokanga of the Barents Sea basin. The largest lakes are Imandra, Umbozero, and Lovozero. There is tundra vegetation in the north; farther south is wooded tundra and taiga forests, primarily pine and spruce. The main city and port is Murmansk, which is ice-free.
K. A. SHURKIN