Kola Peninsula


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Kola Peninsula

(kō`lə, Rus. kô`lə), peninsula, c.50,000 sq mi (129,500 sq km), NW European Russia, in Murmansk region. Forming an eastern extension of the Scandinavian peninsula, it lies between the Barents Sea to the north and the White Sea to the south. In the northeastern part are tundras; the southwestern area is forested. The peninsula has rich mineral deposits in the Khibiny Mts., which rise to c.4,000 ft (1,220 m). Hydroelectric plants have been built along the Tuloma, Voronya, and Niva rivers. The port of MurmanskMurmansk
, city (1989 pop. 468,000), capital of Murmansk region, NW European Russia, on the Kola Gulf of the Barents Sea. It is the terminus of the Northeast Passage and the world's largest city N of the Arctic Circle, with a polar research institute.
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 and the mining center of KirovskKirovsk
, city (1989 pop. 43,500), N European Russia, on the Kola Peninsula. The city is the center of a mining complex that produces apatite and nephelite, raw materials for the superphosphate and aluminum industries. It was founded in 1929 as Khibinogorsk.
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 are the major cities of the peninsula. Along the coasts and in the mining centers, the population is primarily Russian; in the interior are Sami (Lapps), who until the ChernobylChernobyl
, Ukr. Chornobyl, abandoned city, N Ukraine, near the Belarus border, on the Pripyat River. Ten miles (16 km) to the north, in the town of Pripyat, is the Chernobyl nuclear power station, site of the worst nuclear reactor disaster in history. On Apr.
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 disaster subsisted largely on reindeer raising. Since the 1960s the peninsula has suffered severe ecological degradation from mining and smelting operations. Near Murmansk is the ancient town of Kola, founded in 1264 by Slavs from Novgorod.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kola Peninsula

 

a peninsula in the extreme northwest of the European part of the USSR, in Murmansk Oblast, RSFSR. In the north the Kola Peninsula is washed by the waters of the Barents Sea, and in the south and east by the White Sea. Beginning at the western border of the peninsula is a meridional depression extending from the Kola Gulf through the Kola River valley, Lake Imandra, and the Niva River to Kandalaksha Bay. The Kola Peninsula has an area of approximately 100,000 sq km. The northern coast is high and steep, and the southern coast low and gently sloping. In the western part are the mountain massifs of Khibiny and Lovozero tundras (elevations to 1,120m); the Keivy watershed ridge (elevations to 397 m) stretches in the central part along the peninsular axis.

The Kola Peninsula makes up the northeast border of the Baltic Shield and is composed primarily of crystalline Precam-brian and Lower Paleozoic rocks. It can be structurally divided inte four parts: the Murmansk block (on the Barents sea coast), composed of a complex of Archean and Lower Proterozoic rocks; the White Sea block (southwestern and southern section of the peninsula), composed of an Archean White Sea series; the Granulite belt (in the northwest); and the Géosynclinal Karelian Zone of Folding (in the central part), which formed in the Lower and Middle Proterozoic.

There are large deposits of apatite ores (Khibiny); aluminiferous raw materials (Keivy); nickel (Pechenga, Monchetundra); iron ores (Olenegorskoe, Imeni Kirova); mica and ceramic raw materials (Ena, Rikolatva, Strel’na); and titanium magnetite, phlogopite, and vermiculite (Kovdor) on the Kola Peninsula. Ore manifestations of rare and nonferrous metals and rare-earth elements have been discovered.

The climate on the Kola Peninsula, in spite of its northern location, is relatively mild as a result of the influence of a branch of the warm Atlantic Current. The average January temperatures range from — 8°C (on the northern coast) to — 13°C (in the central part), and the July temperatures from 8° to 14°C, respectively. There are many turbulent rivers, full of rapids, with great hydroelectric power potential. The most important are the Ponoi, Varzuga, and Umba rivers of the White Sea basin and the Teriberka, Voron’ia, and Iokanga of the Barents Sea basin. The largest lakes are Imandra, Umbozero, and Lovozero. There is tundra vegetation in the north; farther south is wooded tundra and taiga forests, primarily pine and spruce. The main city and port is Murmansk, which is ice-free.

K. A. SHURKIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kola Peninsula

a peninsula in NW Russia, between the Barents and White Seas: forms most of the Murmansk region. Area: about 130 000 sq. km (50 000 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In the article, the following algorithm is used to complete these tasks: first, we present an element of the Kola Peninsula landscape; second, we list all the possible lexemes in Kildin Saami which verbalise this concept, along with their lexical meanings taken from Saami language dictionaries, from the ethnographic and reference literature and from archive documents; and third, we compare the meanings given in the lexicographical sources of the late 19th-early 20th centuries with the modern referents of these words as explained by informants.
Each chapter dispenses brusquely with descriptions of the Kola Peninsulas ecology and geology.
The southeasterly flow northeast of Andenes on 13 July allowed sampling of the Kola Peninsula plume over the Barents Sea (Fig.
The Sami people that are referred as also Sami in the book, are the minority group that are located at some parts of Northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia (p.11).
This book is the result of a collaboration between a Finnish non-governmental organization, the Snowchange Co-operative, and the Sami Council, and is the result of a three-year project to document the land use of the eastern Simi people in the face of the imminent possibility that Barrick Gold, the largest gold and platinum mining company in the world, would commence open-pit mining at the heart of the Kola Peninsula, with potentially devastating environmental impacts.
The firm has mines and phosphate rock production facilities in the Kola Peninsula, in the Murmansk region, and fertiliser and feed phosphate production plants near the city of Cherepovets, in the Vologda region, and near the city of Balakovo, in the Saratov region.Country: RussiaSector: ChemicalsType: Restructuring, MergerStatus: Agreed
He even met his Russian wife Galyna, a chemical engineer, while working north of the country's Kola Peninsula 15 years ago.
In the UK, he was best-known for his fishing writing, and his books Castaway and I Know a Good Place detail many of the exotic places he visited, including Russia's Kola Peninsula, Mongolia, the Falklands and Christmas Island.
Also, should the Shtokman project be realized on time, the company would consider building a fertilizer complex on the Kola Peninsula to benefit from lower transportation costs.
The Russians, who didn't begin drilling until 1970, had reached a depth of more than 12 kilometers at a site on the Kola Peninsula by 1989, creating the recordsetting Kola Superdeep Borehole.
The Shtokman Gas-Condensate Field Development Project consists of the production, treatment, transportation, liquefaction, storage and shipping of natural gas and natural gas liquids from the Shtokman field located 600-km offshore in the Barents Sea, north of Kola Peninsula, Russia.
Ovoca Gold PLC (Ovoca Gold) (LSE: OVG), a Moscow-based gold exploration and mine development company, has completed the resampling and testing of earlier drilled core material on the Oleninskoye deposit on the Kola peninsula (Murmansk Region, Russia).