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(kôlkŭt`ə), formerly


(kălkŭt`ə), city (1991 pop. 10,916,272), capital of West Bengal state, E India, on the Hugli River. It is the second largest city in India and one of the largest in the world. Ten of Kolkata's suburbs—Haora, South Suburban City, Bhatpara, South Dum Dum, Kamarhati, Garden Reach, Panihati, Baranagar, Hugli-Chinsura, and Serampore—have well over 100,000 people each. The area of the Kolkata metropolitan area is 228.5 sq mi (591 sq km), extending more than 40 miles along the Hugli. Kolkata is the major seaport (see HaldiaHaldia
, city (1991 pop. 100,109), West Bengal, NE India. Haldia is being developed as a major trade port for Kolkata (Calcutta), intended mainly for bulk cargoes. The city has a fertilizer factory and a refinery, in addition to various light industries.
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) and industrial center of E India; jute is milled, and textiles, chemicals, paper, and metal products are manufactured. Bengali, Hindi, and Urdu are the main languages. The city has terrible poverty, chronic unemployment, overcrowding, inadequate transportation, and resultant social unrest.

Kolkata was founded c.1690 as Calcutta by the British East India CompanyEast India Company, British,
1600–1874, company chartered by Queen Elizabeth I for trade with Asia. The original object of the group of merchants involved was to break the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade with the East Indies.
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. In 1756 the nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daula, captured Kolkata and killed most of its garrison by imprisoning it overnight in a small, stifling room, known as the notorious "Black Hole." Robert CliveClive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey
, 1725–74, British soldier and statesman. He went to India in 1743 as a clerk for the British East India Company and entered the military service of the company in 1744; he soon distinguished himself in the fighting against the French.
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 retook the city in 1757. From 1833 to 1912, the city was the capital of British India.

The Univ. of Calcutta (founded 1857), Jadavpur Univ., and the Indian Museum, which houses one of the world's outstanding natural history collections, are in the city. The Maidan, a large river-front park, is Kolkata's most attractive section. A subway through the central section of the city opened in 1986. The city was officially renamed Kolkata (its name in Bengali) in 2001.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Banerjee said that the Kolkata Metro will be carrying out construction and repair work for the damaged houses and till then the residents will be moved to another location.
The city of Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kolkata were also humbled by Bangalore recently and they will be missing injured all-rounder Andre Russell in Kanpur today.
During her meeting with Cameron here in 2013, the chief minister had held discussions on developing water transport in Kolkata, besides various aspects of town planning.
Kolkata is the main commercial and financial hub of East and North-East India with a metropolitan population of 14.1 mln people.
Peter Baumgartner, Etihad Airways Chief Commercial Officer, said, "We are delighted to add Kolkata, an economic powerhouse and Etihad Airways' first destination in North Eastern India, to our flight network.
Moreover, the fare is also always high for Kolkata."
The Finale of the fbbFemina Miss India Kolkata 2014 will be hosted at Swissotel on February 20, the official Hospitality and Venue partner for the Kolkata pageant.The auditions are expecting a remarkable response from the great pool of talent that the vibrant city has to offer.
The detainees, Sheikh Farhat Mehmood and Sheikh Imran, serving life sentence on a fake charge have gone on hunger strike at Alipore Central Jail Kolkata to press for their shifting to a jail inside Kashmir.
The former India captain has steered India to great heights under his leadership and the question in everyone's mind is whether he can do the same with Kolkata and clinch a place in the semi-finals of the Indian Premier League.
KOLKATA, March 20, 2010 (Frontier Star): In a major goof-up, an advertisement inserted in newspapers by the Eastern Railway showed Delhi in Pakistan and Kolkata in the Bay of Bengal.