a village (since 1960 part of Moscow); a former grand ducal and imperial country estate, with an architectural ensemble built in the 16th and 17th centuries. It is located on the right, high bank of the Moscow River. Kolomenskoe was first mentioned about 1339 in the testament of Ivan Kalita.
In 1606, the camp for I. Bolotnikov’s detachments was located in Kolomenskoe. In 1662 the reprisal against the participants in the Moscow uprising of that year took place in the village.
An outstanding monument of Russian architecture is located in Kolomenskoe—the Voznesenie Church, one of the first churches built with a high pyramidal roof of stone (1532; brick with white stone details; about 60 m high). The church is symmetrical, with a powerful stress on vertical lines and an internal space that is cruciform in plan; it stands on a raised foundation and has a high, eight-faceted roof with a flat cupola. The narrow pilasters at the four corners, the arrowhead-shaped window frames, the three tiers of ogee-arch kokoshniki (corbeledrout supporting arches), and the peaceful rhythm of the stone arcades of the staircases and the round gallery accent the dynamic vertical emphasis of this uncommonly beautiful building.
The Kolomenskoe complex also includes the five-pillared Church of the Beheading of John the Baptist (1547) in D’iakovo, the overall color scheme of which anticipated the architecture of St. Basil’s Cathedral; the church and bell tower of St. George the Victor (16th century); the Kazan church (1660’s); and the two entrance gates (1670’s). In 1667–71, S. Petrov and I. Mikhailov constructed a wooden palace in Kolomenskoe (partially rebuilt in 1681 by S. Dement’ev), which was, in the opinion of contemporaries, the “eighth wonder of the world.” The palace consisted of picturesquely arranged high frames of ax-hewn timbers, connected by covered passages and canopies; it was decorated with rich carving and internal painting. By 1768 the palace had become dilapidated and was pulled down.
Since 1923, Kolomenskoe has been a branch of the State Historical Museum; it has a collection of decorative art (including 17th century tiles). Other items have also been transported to Kolomenskoe, including the wooden tower from above the gate of the Nikolo-Karel’skii Monastery (1694), a mead distillery from the suburban Moscow village of Preobrazhenskoe (17th century), Peter I’s house from Arkhangel’sk (1702), and the tower from the Bratsk jail (1652). Since 1971, Kolomenskoe has been a museum-preserve, including the site of the fortified town of D’iakovo.
REFERENCESPodkliuchnikov, V. N. Kolomenskoe. Moscow, 1944.
Meshcherina, V. M. Kolomenskoe. Moscow, 1958.
Gra, M. A. Kolomenskoe. Moscow, 1963.
Kolomenskoe (photo essay). Moscow, 1965.