Kootenai


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Kootenai

(ko͞ot`ənā'), group of Native North Americans who in the 18th cent. occupied the so-called Kootenai country (i.e., N Montana, N Idaho, and SE British Columbia). Their language is thought by some scholars to form a branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock, although others argue that it has not been definitely related to any known linguistic family (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). The Upper Kootenai lived near the headwaters of the Columbia River, and the Lower Kootenai lived on the Lower Kootenai River. According to tradition the Kootenai once lived E of the Rocky Mts., but they were driven westward by their enemies the Blackfoot. Kootenai culture was essentially that of the Plateau area, but after the advent of the horse the Kootenai adopted many Plains area traits including a seasonal buffalo hunt. Contact with whites began early in the 19th cent., when the North West Company established Rocky Mountain House on the upper Saskatchewan River. In 1807 the same company opened the first trading post in Kootenai country. The Kootenai are related to the Salish, with whom they share the Flathead Reservation in NW Montana. Another group of Kootenai live on a reservation in Idaho. In 1990 there were 750 Kootenai and about 2,300 people of mixed Salish and Kootenai descent in the United States, as well as some 500 Kootenai in Canada. Their name is sometimes spelled Kootenay or Kutenai.

Bibliography

See H. H. Turney-High, Ethnography of the Kutenai (1941, repr. 1974); O. W. Johnson, Flathead and Kootenay (1969).


Kootenai

(ko͞o`tĭnā), river, 407 mi (655 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts., SE British Columbia, Canada. It flows S into NW Montana, NW through N Idaho, then N into Canada. There it flows through Kootenay Lake (64 mi/103 km long; 191 sq mi/495 sq km), an expansion of the river, before joining the Columbia River at Castlegar. The river is used to generate hydroelectricity. The Canadian name is spelled Kootenay.

Kootenai

 

(Kootenay), a river in Canada and the USA, a left tributary of the Columbia. Length, 720 km; basin area, 43,600 sq km. It originates in the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range and crosses the US border twice. In its lower course it flows through Kootenay Lake. The Kootenai is fed by snow and glaciers. Sharp fluctuations are typical in the water discharge—up to 2,000 cu m per sec in spring and approximately 17,000 cu m per sec in winter. The upper course flows through Kootenay National Park; five hydroelectric power stations are located below Kootenay Lake.

Kootenay

, Kootenai
a river in W North America, rising in SE British Columbia and flowing south into NW Montana, then north into Idaho before re-entering British Columbia, broadening into Kootenay Lake, then flowing to the Columbia River. Length: 655 km (407 miles)
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An anthropologist at the Fort Collins Museum in Colorado, Herness is a member of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, and herself became a trans-racial adoptee at age two.
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According to tribal sources (see below), the Flathead Reservation consists of 4 tribes that form a Confederacy made by the 1855 treaty with the government: Lower Pend d'Oreille and Kalispels are the 1st two (they already called this area their homeland), the Kootenai (who shared their hunting grounds to the north) and lastly the Salish who were reluctantly removed from their homeland in the Bitterroot Valley & re-located to the Flathead Reservation in 1891.
About 15 years ago, 78-year-old Walter "Dutch" Hamann, of Kootenai, Idaho grew tired of splitting firewood by hand and decided there had to be an easier way than the brute force needed in swinging a 10-pound splitting maul.
Morrison was the lead instructor, project coordinator and department head of the Highway Construction Training program at the Salish Kootenai College for the past 14 years.

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