Koshiba, Masatoshi

Koshiba, Masatoshi,

1926–, Japanese physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Tokyo, 1955. He has been a professor at the Univ. of Tokyo since 1958. Koshiba received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics with Riccardo GiacconiGiacconi, Riccardo,
1931–2018, Italian-American astrophysicist, b. Milan, Italy, Ph.D. Univ. of Milan 1954. He was a researcher at American Science and Engineering Corporation (1959–73), professor at Harvard (1973–81), director of the Space Telescope Science
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 and Raymond DavisDavis, Raymond, Jr.,
1914–2006, American astrochemist, Ph.D. Yale Univ. 1942. Davis, who served in the Army Air Forces from 1942 to 1946, was a researcher at Monsanto Chemical Company (1946–48) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (1948–84).
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 for their pioneering contributions to astrophysics. Koshiba and Davis are credited with the detection of cosmic neutrinosneutrino
[Ital.,=little neutral (particle)], elementary particle with no electric charge and a very small mass emitted during the decay of certain other particles. The neutrino was first postulated in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli in order to maintain the law of conservation of energy
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, the most elusive particles in the universe. Their work has led to a new field of research known as neutrino astronomyneutrino astronomy,
study of stars by means of their emission of neutrinos, fundamental particles that result from nuclear reactions and are emitted by stars along with light. Approximately 100 billion neutrinos have raced through your body since you began reading this article.
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, which is important to particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.