a breed of dairy and beef cattle. Developed in Kostroma Oblast at the Karavaevo Sovkhoz and on kolkhozes of Kostroma Raion (12-yi Oktiabr’ Kolkhoz and others) and Nerekhta Raion (Rodina Kolkhoz and others), by cross-breeding Yaroslavl and local mongrel cattle with Algau and Schwyz breeds. The hybrids were fed and maintained under improved conditions and were selected and culled strictly. The Kostroma breed was confirmed in 1945.
The animals are large and have sturdy frames. The color varies from light to dark gray. Bulls weigh 800–900 kg, cows 550–650 kg. Productivity of the cows on leading farms is 4,000–5,000 kg of milk per year. The fat content of the milk is 3.9 percent. The record milk yields are 14,115 kg and 14,203 kg. Fattened steers weigh 400–500 kg at 18 months. Dressed yield is 65–67 percent. Work continues on breeding in an increased fat content in the milk. The Kostroma breed is used to improve many other breeds and local cattle. The breed is raised in Kostroma, Ivanovo, and Vladimir oblasts of the RSFSR and in the Byelorussian SSR.
REFERENCESMalinina, P. A. Puti sozdaniia vysokoproduktivnogo stada kostromskoi porody. Kostroma, 1949.
Gorskii, N. A. Kostromskaia poroda skota v kolkhozakh. Moscow, 1952.
V. A. SHAUMIAN