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Kovrov(kərôf`), city (1989 pop. 160,000), central European Russia, on the Klyazma River. Kovrov is an industrial center that produces excavating machines, linen textiles, and machine tools.
a city in Vladimir Oblast, RSFSR; a landing on the Kliaz’ma River (a tributary of the Oka). Railroad junction 64 km northeast of Vladimir on the lines to Vladimir, Gorky, and Murom. Population (1972), 128,000 (26,000 in 1926 and 67,000 in 1939).
Kovrov arose on the site of the village of Elifanovka (founded in the 12th century) and was subsequently renamed Rozhdestvennoe. In the 16th century it belonged to the Kovrov princes (from whom it received its present name). In the first half of the 17th century the village was given by Prince Ivan Kovrov as a gift to the Spaso-Evfimiev Monastery in Suzdal’. In 1764, Kovrov was made an administrative village and in 1778 was renamed a district city. In 1796 the city was divested of its administrative role, but it was again restored in 1803.
During the prewar five-year plans the small iron foundry was rebuilt into a large plant of national significance. The railroad repair shops at Kovrov station were reorganized into a plant repairing earth-moving equipment. On Apr. 21, 1931, the plant produced the first Soviet-made excavator; in 1934 it created the PPG-1 tracklaying excavator; and in 1937, the LK-0.5 diesel universal tracklaying excavator.
Modern Kovrov is the second most important (after Vladimir) city in the oblast in terms of population and industrial significance. Its plants include an excavator plant, the V. A. Degtiarev Plant (motorcycles), and a machine plant (scooter engines); there are a textile factory, a clothing factory, a meat-packing combine, and a flour mill. The educational institutions include the general engineering department of the Vladimir Polytechnic Institute, power-machinery and machinery technicums, and a medical school. There is also a museum of local lore.