Kozelsk


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Kozel’sk

 

a city, the administrative center of Kozel’sk Raion, Kaluga Oblast, RSFSR. On the Zhizdra River (a tributary of the Oka), 72 km southwest of Kaluga. A junction of railroad lines to Smolensk, Gorbachevo, and Tula.

Kozel’sk is first mentioned in a chronicle in 1146 as part of the principality of Chernigov. Kozel’sk became famous for its courageous defense in the spring of 1238 against the troops of Khan Batu, who named Kozel’sk the “evil city.” (The inhabitants of Kozel’sk defended themselves over a period of seven weeks, wiped out 4,000 Mongol-Tatars, and, preferring death to capture, all perished in unequal battle.) Kozel’sk was temporarily under the authority of Lithuania in 1446. It became part of the principality of Moscow in 1494. One of I. I. Bolotnikov’s detachments, which was stubbornly resisting tsarist troops, found itself in Kozel’sk in 1607. It became a district city in 1776.

Soviet power was established in Kozel’sk on Dec. 7–8 (20–21), 1917. It was occupied by fascist German troops from October 1941 to Dec. 27, 1941, and was almost completely destroyed. The city was rebuilt in the postwar years. A glass factory, metal-working plant, and brickyard are located in Kozel’sk. Architectural monuments remaining intact include the Voznesenskaia Church (1620’s), the baroque Nikol’skaia Church (1740), and the classical Blagoveshchenskaia Church (1810) and the Pokrovskaia Church (1835).

REFERENCE

Anisimov, N. N., and V. N. Sorokin. Kozel’sk. Tula, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
During the following months they were detained in the NKVD camps in the western part of the USSR, in Kozelsk, Ostashkov and Starobelsk."
By liquidating the Kozelsk, Starobelsk and Ostashkov camps, the Soviet leaders assumed from the very beginning that the decisions sanctioning the division of the Polish state were final; they did not consider a possibility of the rebuilding of Poland or a military conflict in which the newly imprisoned Polish officers would become useful--not to mention their becoming allies.
(169) Lebedeva writes, "The prisoners of Kozelsk, Starobelsk and Ostashkov constituted the country's military and intellectual elite absolutely ready to join the fight for the restoration of their homeland's independence." (170) She stresses that "after more than six months spent in the harsh prison conditions, they were broken neither mentally nor morally.
The Novosibirsk division (in Siberia) will receive mobile Yars systems, while the Kozelsk division (in central Russia) will be armed with the silo-based version of the system.
Firstly, the state of alert is to be maintained, and orders have been given to suspend the dismantling of the strategic missile division stationed in Kozelsk, to the south-west of Moscow, equipped with RS-18 missiles (NATO code: SS-19 Stiletto) with a range of 10,000 kms.
(35) A decision was made at the time to murder "the 14,700 former Polish officers, officials, landowners, police, intelligence agents, gendarmes, [military] settlers, and prison officers" as well as "the 11,000 members of various [counter-revolutionary] espionage and sabotage organisations, former landowners, manufacturers, former Polish officers, officials and refugees...." (36) The decision made at the time meant the extermination of about 25,700 Polish nationals held in camps located in Kozelsk, Starobelsk, and Ostashkov as well as in various prisons, including those in Minsk, Kharkhov, Kiev, and Kherson.
See NKVD UPV Report on the Nationality of Polish POW Officers Held in Starobelsk and Kozelsk Camps, in id.