Kozelsk


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Kozel’sk

 

a city, the administrative center of Kozel’sk Raion, Kaluga Oblast, RSFSR. On the Zhizdra River (a tributary of the Oka), 72 km southwest of Kaluga. A junction of railroad lines to Smolensk, Gorbachevo, and Tula.

Kozel’sk is first mentioned in a chronicle in 1146 as part of the principality of Chernigov. Kozel’sk became famous for its courageous defense in the spring of 1238 against the troops of Khan Batu, who named Kozel’sk the “evil city.” (The inhabitants of Kozel’sk defended themselves over a period of seven weeks, wiped out 4,000 Mongol-Tatars, and, preferring death to capture, all perished in unequal battle.) Kozel’sk was temporarily under the authority of Lithuania in 1446. It became part of the principality of Moscow in 1494. One of I. I. Bolotnikov’s detachments, which was stubbornly resisting tsarist troops, found itself in Kozel’sk in 1607. It became a district city in 1776.

Soviet power was established in Kozel’sk on Dec. 7–8 (20–21), 1917. It was occupied by fascist German troops from October 1941 to Dec. 27, 1941, and was almost completely destroyed. The city was rebuilt in the postwar years. A glass factory, metal-working plant, and brickyard are located in Kozel’sk. Architectural monuments remaining intact include the Voznesenskaia Church (1620’s), the baroque Nikol’skaia Church (1740), and the classical Blagoveshchenskaia Church (1810) and the Pokrovskaia Church (1835).

REFERENCE

Anisimov, N. N., and V. N. Sorokin. Kozel’sk. Tula, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
Request for proposal: Construction of apartment 5-storey residential building on Gagarin Street in Kozelsk (house Phase 1 Pos.
Address : The Russian Federation, 249722, Kaluga Region, Kozelsk g SOVIET B.
Anatoly Artamonov, the Governor of Kaluga region located some 180 km to the southwest of Moscow, took part in the ceremony of commissioning a top-notch family cattle farm in the village of Plyuskovo, Kozelsk region.
36) The decision made at the time meant the extermination of about 25,700 Polish nationals held in camps located in Kozelsk, Starobelsk, and Ostashkov as well as in various prisons, including those in Minsk, Kharkhov, Kiev, and Kherson.
The Novosibirsk division (in Siberia) will receive mobile Yars systems, while the Kozelsk division (in central Russia) will be armed with the silo-based version of the system.
With R&D facilities located just outside of Moscow and production casting facilities in Kozelsk, Russia, BCT is able to offer its customers the world's most comprehensive expertise and practical experience in the near-net-shape processing of beryllium -- aluminum alloys, including the world's first (and only) production level beryllium aluminum investment casting facility, constructed in 1986.
By liquidating the Kozelsk, Starobelsk and Ostashkov camps, the Soviet leaders assumed from the very beginning that the decisions sanctioning the division of the Polish state were final; they did not consider a possibility of the rebuilding of Poland or a military conflict in which the newly imprisoned Polish officers would become useful--not to mention their becoming allies.
The graphic models the consequences of an attack on the Kozelsk ICBM field, about 180 miles west of Moscow: a radiation plume some 400 miles long and a likely total of 13.
See NKVD UPV Report on the Nationality of Polish POW Officers Held in Starobelsk and Kozelsk Camps, in id.