Kozelsk

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Kozel’sk

 

a city, the administrative center of Kozel’sk Raion, Kaluga Oblast, RSFSR. On the Zhizdra River (a tributary of the Oka), 72 km southwest of Kaluga. A junction of railroad lines to Smolensk, Gorbachevo, and Tula.

Kozel’sk is first mentioned in a chronicle in 1146 as part of the principality of Chernigov. Kozel’sk became famous for its courageous defense in the spring of 1238 against the troops of Khan Batu, who named Kozel’sk the “evil city.” (The inhabitants of Kozel’sk defended themselves over a period of seven weeks, wiped out 4,000 Mongol-Tatars, and, preferring death to capture, all perished in unequal battle.) Kozel’sk was temporarily under the authority of Lithuania in 1446. It became part of the principality of Moscow in 1494. One of I. I. Bolotnikov’s detachments, which was stubbornly resisting tsarist troops, found itself in Kozel’sk in 1607. It became a district city in 1776.

Soviet power was established in Kozel’sk on Dec. 7–8 (20–21), 1917. It was occupied by fascist German troops from October 1941 to Dec. 27, 1941, and was almost completely destroyed. The city was rebuilt in the postwar years. A glass factory, metal-working plant, and brickyard are located in Kozel’sk. Architectural monuments remaining intact include the Voznesenskaia Church (1620’s), the baroque Nikol’skaia Church (1740), and the classical Blagoveshchenskaia Church (1810) and the Pokrovskaia Church (1835).

REFERENCE

Anisimov, N. N., and V. N. Sorokin. Kozel’sk. Tula, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
(12.) See ADAM MOSZYNSKI, LISTA KATYNSKA : JENCY OBOZOV KOZIELSK, OSTASZKOW, STAROBIELSK, ZAGINIENI W ROSJI SOWIECKIEJ 1988-89 (1982); ALAN PAUL, KATYN: STALIN'S MASSACRE AND SEEDS OF POLISH RESSURECTION 237-38 (2003).
Of these, some 15,000 soldiers were sent to three special camps in Kozielsk, Starobielsk and Ostaszkov and summarily killed with one bullet through the skull in the Spring of 1940.
Merkulov a list of names of officers who had been imprisoned at Kozielsk
"clearing out" the three "special camps" (Kozielsk,
17, 1943, at A4 (quoting the Polish War Minister, Lieutenant General Marjan Kukiel, as calling for an ICRC investigation as to the fate of 10,000 officers among 181,000 POWs and further providing remarkably accurate figures of 4,500 officers at the POW camp in Kozielsk, 3,800 at Starobyelsk, and 380 at Ostashkovo).
Kozielsk, Ostaszkow and Starobielsk, as well as films documenting the
The first group consisted of 14,700 Polish POWs taken from the battlefield; mainly officers, policemen and border guards who were held in three special POW camps in Kozielsk, Starobelsk, and Ostashkov.
While mass graves from the Kozielsk camp were discovered in the Katyn forest in the spring of 1943 by the German Army advancing towards Moscow, the burial sites of the Polish POWs from Starobelsk and Ostashkov camps became known fifty years later.
Thanks to this safe haven, some Polish officers survived the Katyn slaughter, but after the annexation of Lithuania in June of 1940, they were hunted down and sent to the Kozielsk camp that had just been emptied as a result of the Katyn massacre.