Emil Kraepelin

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Kraepelin, Emil

(krĕpəlēn`), 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm WundtWundt, Wilhelm Max
, 1832–1920, German physiologist and psychologist. From 1875 he taught at Leipzig, where he founded the first laboratory for experimental psychology.
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 in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ. of Dorpat, Heidelberg (1891) and Münich (1903), where he also directed a clinic. Kraepelin authored nine editions of a textbook which classified mental diseases according to their cause, symptomatology, course, final stage, and pathological anatomical findings, producing a system of classification which has relevance even today. He established the clinical pictures of dementia praecox (now known as schizophreniaschizophrenia
, group of severe mental disorders characterized by reality distortions resulting in unusual thought patterns and behaviors. Because there is often little or no logical relationship between the thoughts and feelings of a person with schizophrenia, the disorder has
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) in 1893, and of manic-depressive psychosis (now known as bipolar disorderbipolar disorder,
formerly manic-depressive disorder
or manic-depression,
severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depression.
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) in 1899, after analyzing thousands of case histories. Kraepelin was concerned only with diagnostic classification, and did not accept the theory of unconscious mental activity postulated by psychoanalysts. His classification of mental disorders served as the foundation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), the standard reference text used by psychiatrists today. His major work is his Textbook of Psychiatry (9th ed. 1927).

Kraepelin, Emil

 

Born Feb. 15, 1856, in Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg; died Oct. 7, 1926, in Munich. German psychiatrist. Professor of psychiatry at the universities of Dorpat (now Tartu; from 1886), Heidelberg (from 1891), and Munich (from 1903).

In 1922, Kraepelin left his professorship, to work at the Munich Research Institute for Psychiatry, which he had founded in 1917. His principal works were devoted to elaborating the clinical practice of mental diseases and their classification, which was constructed by Kraepelin according to the nosological principle. He believed that single causes entailed single consequences, that is, symptoms; Kraepelin attributed great significance to their course and outcome in delimiting nosological forms. One of Kraepelin’s major achievements was the division of endogenic psychoses according to their outcome into two categories: dementia praecox (schizophrenia) and manic-depressive psychosis.

His idealistic approach to the causes of mental disease led Kraepelin to assign too much significance to heredity and constitutional factors; he understood cause and effect as something permanent and immutable and did not take into account such factors as the body’s reactive features and the effect of the environment. Nevertheless, Kraepelin’s nosology remains the basis of clinical psychiatry. He created an important psychiatric school. Kraepelin’s Textbook of Psychiatry, upon which many generations of psychiatrists were reared, went through eight editions (from 1883).

WORKS

Uchebnik psikhiatrii, vols. [l]-2. Moscow, 1910–12.
Vvedenie v psikhiatricheskuiu kliniku, 4th ed. Moscow-Petrograd, 1923. REFERENCE Kannabikh, lu. Istoriia psikhiatrii. [Moscow], 1929.

E. IA. SHTERNBERG

References in periodicals archive ?
Kraepelin, ademas, cientifiza la relacion que Cabanis establece entre aspectos sociales y biologicos en la explicacion de la locura.
Emil Kraepelin and his institute was a model for Turkish neuropsychiatrists during this period.
Dok je Kraepelin nekoliko raznih obiljezja poremecaja misljenja svrstao pod fenomen nekoherentnosti misli, Bleuler (1911 (3), prema McKenna i Oh 2005: 4) je uocio da simptomi shizofrenije, odnosno poremecaja misljenja, mogu varirati od bolesnika do bolesnika, pa je odredio metaforicki pojam slabljenja asocijacija kao kljucno svojstvo koje objedinjuje sve simptome.
La locura maniaco-depresiva de Kraepelin (9), que retomaba la locura circular de Falret, describio una fase de lucidez o "intervalos libres" (tambien llamados periodos de remision) entre fases, o posteriores a prolongadas etapas depresivas o maniacas (o mixtas).
Initially Kraepelin distinguished between schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Kraepelin proposed an unsystematic classification, describing the types: unstable, irritable, impulsive, eccentric, liars, disputers, and anti-social and Schneider defined abnormal personalities as ways of being, distinguishing them from the field of diseases (Del Porto, 1996).
1995) based on the frequent up-and-down fluctuations in mood observed between sufferers' episodes of mood disorders such as bipolar II disorder (Inter-episode mood lability; Kraepelin, 1921).
Ce ne sera qu'un siecle plus tard qu'une telle approche sera reintroduite en psychiatrie par les peres fondateurs de la psychopathologie descriptive: Kraepelin, Bleuler et Jaspers.
Revision of the centipede genus Hemiscolopendra Kraepelin, 1903: Description of H.
Research on compulsive buying dates back to the last century when it was identified by Bleuler (1924) and Kraepelin (1915), they called it as a mental disorder and named it oniomania which means buying mania compulsive shopping, an addiction.
Con base en esto, se realizo una investigacion sobre las trayectorias de medicos de la generacion intelectual de Juliano Moreira, Ulysses Vianna y Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), que fueron parte de una generacion intelectual cuyo objetivo era crear una medicina experimental y de laboratorio, cada vez mas especializada, con una orientacion hacia lo biologico.
While this profile is not itself new--it has been described at least since the time of Kraepelin, and was described by Andreasen (51) as a result of a "burning out" disease process that leaves an "empty shell" in place of what a person used to be--it is a profile that is of increasing concern to hospital staff and administrators.