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Krasnodar(krəs'nədär`), city (1989 pop. 621,000), capital of Krasnodar Territory, SE European Russia, on the Kuban River. A river port and railroad junction, it has petroleum refineries and machinery, metalworking, textile, chemical, and food-processing plants. Founded in 1794 by Zaporozhe (Black Sea) Cossacks upon orders from Catherine II, it was organized as their administrative center and called Ekaterinodar (Yekaterinodar). It served as a military center protecting Russia's Caucasian frontier. After 1918 it was the capital of the Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic and was renamed in 1920.
(Ekaterinodar until December 1920), a city; administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, RSFSR. Located on the right bank of the Kuban’, the city is built on the first and partly on the second floodplain terraces of the river. It is a highway and railroad junction (lines to Novorossiisk, Timashevsk, Tikhoretsk, and Stavropol’). The population was 491,000 in 1972 (66,000 in 1897, 153,000 in 1926, 193,000 in 1939, and 313,000 in 1959).
Founded as a military camp in 1793 by Black Sea cossacks, former Zaporozh’e cossacks who had been resettled in the Kuban’ after the incorporation into Russia of western Ciscaucasia, Krasnodar was later a fortress. In 1860 it became the administrative center of Kuban’ Oblast, and in 1867, a city. The construction of a railroad in the Northern Caucasus in the 1870’s and 1880’s (the Tikhoretsk-Ekaterinodar-Novorossiisk line) trans-formed the city into a major trade, industrial, and transportation center of Kuban’ Oblast by the late 19th century. Flour and butter were produced, agricultural products processed, and grain, tobacco, and hides marketed.
In the late 19th century the first Marxist circles were organized in the city. A social democratic organization was founded in 1902, the Ekaterinodar committee of the RSDLP in 1903, and the Kuban’ Oblast Committee of the RSDLP in 1904. The workers of Krasnodar took an active part in the Revolution of 1905–07. Organized during the October All-Russian Political Strike of 1905, the Bolshevik-led Ekaterinodar soviet introduced an eight-hour workday at all enterprises in the city. After the February Revolution of 1917 the city was the center of the cossack counterrevolution, which was led by the Kuban’ Rada (1917–20). Red Guard detachments drove the White Guards from the city on Mar. 1 (14), 1918, and on March 27–31 (April 9–13), Red Army units and Red Guard detachments, responding to the appeal of the Second Congress of the soviets of Kuban’ Oblast, repulsed the attempts of the Volunteer Army to capture the city. The Volunteer Army was defeated. In May 1918, Ekaterinodar became the center of the Kuban’-Black Sea Soviet Republic. The city was recaptured by the White Guards on Aug. 17, 1918, but it was liberated on Mar. 17, 1920, by the Red Army, which routed Denikin’s troops. From Aug. 11, 1942, to Feb. 12, 1943, Krasnodar was occupied by fascist German troops, who badly damaged the city.
Under Soviet power Krasnodar has become a major industrial center. The pace of its development was particularly fast in the postwar period. Heavy industry (primarily machine building and instrument-making) accounts for 33 percent of the total industrial output. Among the major enterprises founded during the Soviet period are the Krasnodarsel’mash Plant, the Sedin Machine-tool Plant, a compressor plant, an oil refinery, the ZIP electric measuring-instrument plant, a chemicals combine, and enterprises producing structural components and building materials.
Light industry and the wood products industry, which account for 38 percent of the city’s industrial output, are represented by worsted, cotton, and furniture and wood products combines, the Kuban’ and Krasnodar furniture firms, and foot-wear and clothing factories. The biggest enterprises of the food and condiments industry, which accounts for 26 percent of the industrial output, are butter-and-oil, meat, dairy, and tobacco combines. Also located in Krasnodar are a porcelain and faience plant and a combine producing vitamin and biochemical preparations. In the construction industry, housing has received top priority.
Located in Krasnodar are a university, polytechnical, medical, and agricultural institutes, and institutes of culture and physical culture. There are 15 specialized secondary educational institutions, including technicums offering programs in electronic instrument-making, machine-tool making, the sugar industry, and agriculture; evening technicums specializing in light industry and in railroad transportation; and mechanical-technological and assembly, Soviet trade, architecture, and construction technicums. In addition, the city has scientific research institutes that meet the needs of agriculture, as well as of the food-processing, oil, and gas industries. Krasnodar’s cultural institutions include drama, operetta, and puppet theaters, a philharmonic society, a circus, a museum of local lore and history, and an art museum.
REFERENCES[Bykov, A. P., and S. I. Shteiner.] Krasnodar. Krasnodar, 1963.
Kutsenko, la. I., L. A. Solodukhin, and G. T. Chuchmai. Krasnodar. [Krasnodar, 1968.]