see TurkmenbashiTurkmenbashi
or Türkmenbaşy
, formerly Krasnovodsk
, city (1991 pop. 59,500), W Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. It is the western terminus of oil and natural gas pipelines and of the Trans-Caspian RR, which links the
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, Turkmenistan.



a city in the Turkmen SSR, a large port on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, at the foot of the Kubadag Range; since 1962 linked with Baku by a seagoing rail ferry. It is the point of departure for the railroad that links Krasnovodsk with the Middle Asian republics. Population, 51,000 (1972; 7,000 in 1913; 21,000 in 1939). Since Dec. 27, 1973, Krasnovodsk has been the administrative center of Krasnovodsk Oblast.

Krasnovodsk was founded as a military fortification in 1869 by Russian troops under the command of Gen. N. G. Stoletov and began to develop after a branch of the Middle Asian Rail-road was built there in 1896. Soviet rule was established there on Oct. 30 (Nov. 12), 1917. In late August 1918, Krasnovodsk was occupied by British interventionists. On the night of Sept. 19–20, 1918, at the 207th verst from Krasnovodsk (the span between the stations of Akhcha-Kuima and Pereval), British interventionists and Socialist Revolutionaries shot 26 Baku commissars. On Feb. 6, 1920, Krasnovodsk was liberated by units of the Red Army.

During the years of socialist construction, an oil refinery (receiving crude oil by pipeline from the republic’s oilfields), a shipyard, and a building-materials plant were built in Krasnovodsk. It has a food industry (fishing, fish-processing, meat), a clothing factory, and a heat and electric power plant. There is an evening general-engineering department of the Moscow Institute of the Petrochemical and Gas Industry, a technicum of chemical technology, a medical school, and the 26 Baku Commissars Museum.

The Krasnovodsk commercial seaport loads and unloads coastal vessels and has a complex of structures to receive the sea ferry from Baku, which transports railroad cars with grain, flour, cotton, equipment, and so on.

References in periodicals archive ?
Having studied this document, it becomes clear that after the execution of "26 Baku commissars" that is, for 10 days from September 20 to October 1, 1918 Shaumian was given food in a prison in Krasnovodsk [today Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan]," he added.
In his notes, he writes about his February 1919 visit to Baku, where he arrived to establish ties with the government of Azerbaijan: "Baku is located on the coast of the Caspian Sea, on the opposite shore of Krasnovodsk; so I thought that this place is suitable for the implementation of my life goals and national tasks entrusted to me by my fellow countrymen".
The Refining Sector: Refined oil products for local use and for export are processed at the two refineries, which have a total capacity of 237,000 b/d and are located at Seidi (formerly Chardzhou) and Turkmenbashi (which used to be known as Krasnovodsk).
General Wladyslaw Anders, who was in charge of the formation of the Polish Army in the Soviet Union, led the evacuation of the Polish citizens from the Soviet Union through Krasnovodsk via the Caspian Sea to in Iran.
Other cities--Turkmenabat (formerly Chardjou/Charjew), Dashoguz (formerly Dashowuz), Mary, Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk).
Having recognized the value of the Caspian port of Krasnovodsk (which they had founded in 1869) during the campaign against the Khanate of Khiva, the Russians became determined to bring the entire Transcaspian region within their empire.
The chief ports are Krasnovodsk, Turkmenistan; Baku, Azerbaijan; and Makhachkala, Russia.
In Turkmenbashi, formerly Krasnovodsk, a small group of worshipers was able to obtain a legal status.