Kravkov, Nikolai Pavlovich
Born Feb. 24 (Mar. 8), 1865, in Riazan; died Apr. 24, 1924, in Leningrad. Russian pharmacologist; founder of Soviet pharmacology. Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1920). Academician of the Military Medical Academy (1914).
Kravkov graduated from the natural sciences division of St. Petersburg University in 1888 and from the Military Medical Academy in 1892. He worked in the laboratories of I. M. Sechenov and V. V. Pashutin. From 1899 until the end of his life he was a professor and head of the subdepartment of pharmacology at the Military Medical Academy. He carried out research on the effect of medicinal substances upon the body, the relationship between the pharmacological effect and the dose or concentration of a substance, and the combined effect of medicinal substances. Kravkov introduced into pharmacology the method of experimenting on isolated organs in their normal and pathological states. He was the first to suggest intravenous narcosis with hedonal and elaborated the theory of the phase effect of medicinal substances.
Kravkov was posthumously awarded the V. I. Lenin Prize in 1926 for his work on the reanimation of necrotic tissues, functional changes of blood vessels in pathological states, and the limits of sensitivity of living protoplasm. He created an important school of pharmacologists, whose representatives include S. V. Anichkov, V. V. Zakusov, V. I. Berezin, and N. I. Gramenitskii.
WORKSOsnovy farmakologii, 14th ed., parts 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1933.
REFERENCESVrachebnoe delo, 1924, nos. 20–23. (Issues are devoted to N.P. Kravkov.) Kuznetsov, A. I. N. P. Kravkov. Moscow, 1948.
Ovchinnikova, A. K. N. P. Kravkov. Moscow, 1969.