Kremenchug


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Related to Kremenchug: Kremenchuk, Krementschug

Kremenchug

an industrial city in E central Ukraine on the Dnieper River. Pop.: 234 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kremenchug

 

a city; administrative center of Kremenchug Raion, Poltava Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. River port on the Dnieper. Railroad junction (lines to Znamenka, Romodan, and Poltava). Population, 160,000 (1972; 87,000 in 1959).

Kremenchug came into being in the second half of the 16th century. The inhabitants participated in the cossack peasant uprisings in the late 16th and first half of the 17th century and in the war of liberation of the Ukrainian people (1648–54). From 1648 to 1667 it was the headquarters city for the cossack regiments; from 1765 to 1783 it was the administrative center of Novorossiia Province, and from 1783 to 1793 it was the district city of the Ekaterinoslav namestnichestvo (vicegerency). It became the district city of Malorossiia Province in 1797 and of Poltava Province in 1802. Industry (food and light industry) began to develop in Kremenchug in the late 18th century. A Social Democratic organization was established in 1901 and a soviet of working people’s deputies in December 1905.

Soviet power was established Jan. 9 (22), 1918. On March 25 of that year, the city was captured by Austrian and German troops, and on November 30, by Petliura’s troops, who were routed by Soviet troops on Feb. 1, 1919. On Aug. 10, 1919, Denikin and his followers seized Kremenchug, but on Dec. 20, Soviet power was reestablished.

During the prewar five-year-plans, Kremenchug grew into an important industrial city, and existing plants and factories were reconstructed. It was the administrative center of Kremenchug Province in 1921–22 and of Kremenchug Okrug from 1923 to 1930; it became part of Kharkov Oblast in 1932 and of Poltava Oblast in 1937. From Sept. 3, 1941, to Sept. 29, 1943, the city was occupied by fascist German troops, who caused enormous damage.

In the postwar period, Kremenchug was completely restored and became one of the large industrial centers of the Ukrainian SSR. The city has machine-building, metalworking, and mining (the Kremenchug Automotive plant, a railroad-car works, a road machinery factory, and an ore-dressing combine), as well as a petroleum refinery and plants producing castings and stamped articles, carbon black, reinforced-concrete railroad ties, silicate, and railroad sleepers. The city also has food industry (a meat-packing combine, a bakery, a liqueur and vodka distillery, a dairy, and a confectionery factory) and light industry (a leather-harness combine and factories producing objets d’art, knit-wear, footwear, and garments). There are furniture and housing-construction combines, as well as enterprises of railroad transportation. The Kremenchug Hydroelectric Power Plant is located above the city on the Dnieper River.

The city also has the general engineering department of the Kharkov Highway Institute; mining, machine-building, evening auto mechanics, and railroad transportation technicums; a civilaviation pilots school; a medical school, and a teachers college. Museums include the A. S. Makarenko Museum and the Museum of History and Local Lore (1971; architect A. D. Vyshinskii).

Among the contemporary buildings in Kremenchug are the Kotlov Club and a school (both 1925–26; architect F. M. Mazulenko), and the Palace of Culture of the road machinery factory (1970) and the municipal Palace of Culture (1972), both built according to standard designs. A monument to V. I. Lenin stands in Victory Square (bronze, 1971; sculptor E. M. Kuntsevich).

REFERENCES

Evselevs’kyi, L. I., and P. M. Pustovit. Kremenchuh; Dovidnyk-putivnyk. Kharkov, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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