Krishna Menon, Vengalil Krishnan

Krishna Menon, Vengalil Krishnan

Krishna Menon, Vengalil Krishnan (vĕngäˈlēl krĭshˈnən krĭshˈnə mĕnˈĭn), 1897–1974, Indian diplomat. He was educated at the Presidency College and the Law College of Madras (now Chennai) and at the London School of Economics and University College, London. During his long stay (1924–47) in England he joined the Labour party, was admitted (1934) to the English bar, and served (1934–47) as borough councilor of St. Pancras, London. As secretary (1929–47) of the India League and also as a journalist, he worked hard for Indian self-government and became closely associated with Jawaharlal Nehru. After Indian independence (1947), Krishna Menon served as high commissioner for India in Great Britain (1947–52) and as Indian delegate to the United Nations (1952–62), where he was an outspoken critic of the United States and a staunch supporter of mainland China. In 1957 he was appointed minister of defense, but in 1962, following the Chinese invasion of India's northern frontiers, he was severely criticized for India's lack of military preparedness and was relieved of office. In 1967 he lost his seat in the national legislature, where he had served since 1953, but he was reelected in 1969.

Bibliography

See biography by T. J. S. George (1964); study by M. Brecher (1968).


Krishnamurti, Jiddu

Krishnamurti, Jiddu (jĭdˈo͞o krĭshˌnəmo͝orˈtē), 1895–1986, Indian religious figure whose message centered on the need for maximum self-awareness. In 1909, Annie Besant met him and proclaimed him an incarnation of Maitreya, the messianic Buddha. Krishnamurti repudiated these claims in 1929, following a two-year tour of England and America with Annie Besant, and dissolved the World Order of the Star, a religious organization he had founded in 1911. He retained some connection with the theosophical movement, however, and continued an active career of lecturing and writing. He finally settled in Ojai, Calif., where from 1969 he headed the Krishnamurti Foundation. His writings include Commentaries on Living (1956–60), Freedom from the Known (1969), The First and Last Freedom (1975), Life in Freedom (1986), and Think on These Things (1989).

Bibliography

See biographies by P. Jayakar (1986) and M. Lutyens (1991).

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