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(both: krənshtät`), city, NW European Russia, on the small island of Kotlin in the Gulf of Finland, c.15 mi (20 km) from Saint PetersburgSaint Petersburg,
formerly Leningrad,
Rus. Sankt-Peterburg, city (1990 est. pop. 5,036,000), capital of the Leningrad region (although not administratively part of it) and the administrative center of the Northwestern federal district, NW European Russia, at
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. It is one of the chief naval bases for the Russian Baltic fleet. The harbor is icebound for several months each year. Kronshtadt and Kotlin are now connected to the mainland by the roadways associated with a flood-control dam built to protect St. Petersburg.

Kronshtadt was founded (1703) by Peter I as a port and a fortress to protect the site of St. Petersburg, and it was the commercial harbor of St. Petersburg until the 1880s. The port lost its commercial value after the development of St. Petersburg. The visit (1891) of a French naval squadron to Kronshtadt was followed by a Franco-Russian military agreement heralding the formation of the Triple Entente of France, England, and Russia.

Mutinies of the naval garrison took place in 1825 and 1882 and played a part in the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 (see Russian RevolutionRussian Revolution,
violent upheaval in Russia in 1917 that overthrew the czarist government. Causes

The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest.
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). A revolt of the sailors in Mar., 1921, was instrumental in establishing Lenin's New Economic PolicyNew Economic Policy
(NEP), official economic reconstruction program of the USSR from 1921 to 1928. It replaced the economic policies of "war Communism" (1918–21), an emergency program established by Lenin during the civil war.
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. The general unrest among peasants and workers touched off this mutiny of the naval garrison that had been loyal to the Bolsheviks during the revolution. This was the climax of the anti-Bolshevik unrest in the country. In World War II, Kronshtadt played a major role in the defense of St. Petersburg (then Leningrad) against the Germans.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The news was passed on to the Ministry of the Interior, which responded with an instruction on 11 November to both the military governor of Kronshtadt and the governor of St.
When the Dawn docked at the Russian naval base of Kronshtadt on the morning of 19 November, Tsybulenko was arrested and taken down to the cells of the fortress.
Beyond these direct appeals to the minister, Sidorov (clearly alerted to the impending arrest even before the ship's arrival in Kronshtadt) had begun to lobby furiously among his contacts within the Ministry of the Interior.
No sooner had the sailing boat, buffeted by strong winds, reached Kronshtadt, than an officer appeared on board.
His journey from a prison cell on Kronshtadt to freedom thus also exposed the tensions between an imperialist/nationalist project, on the one hand, and the tsarist regime, on the other.
Containerships VI, Kronshtadt. Planet V, Felixstowe.
But ultimately even the unfortunate Anna Andreeva Sidorova was caught by the law: a year and a half later, she fulfilled her sentence far away from Moscow at the city police station on the island of Kronshtadt in the Gulf of Finland near St.