Kumarajiva


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Kumārajīva
BirthplaceKashmir, India
Occupation
Buddhist monk, scholar, and translator
Known for Translation of Buddhist texts written in Sanskrit to Chinese.

Kumarajiva

(ko͞omär`əjĭvə), 344–413, Buddhist scholar and missionary, b. Kucha, in what is now Xinjiang, China. When his mother, a Kuchean princess, became a nun, he followed her into monastic life at the age of seven. He grew up in centers of Hinayana BuddhismBuddhism
, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and
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, but he was converted to Mahayana Buddhism in his teens and became a specialist in MadhyamikaMadhyamika
[Skt.,=of the middle], philosophical school of Mahayana Buddhism, based on the teaching of "emptiness" (see sunyata) and named for its adherence to the "middle path" between the views of existence or eternalism and nonexistence or nihilism.
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 philosophy. In 383, Chinese forces seized Kucha and carried Kumarajiva off to China. From 401 he was at the Ch'in court in the capital Chang'an (the modern Xi'an), where he taught and translated Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. More than 100 translations are attributed to him. Of these only about 24 can be authenticated, but they include some of the most important titles in the Chinese Buddhist canon. Kumarajiva's career had an epoch-making influence on Chinese Buddhist thought, not only because he made available important texts that were previously unknown, but also because he did much to clarify Buddhist terminology and philosophical concepts. He and his disciples established the Chinese branch of the Madhyamika, known as the San-lun, or "Three Treatises" school.

Kumarajiva

 

Born circa A.D. 344; died circa A.D. 413. Commentator and translator of Buddhist books into Chinese.

Kumarajiva was born in eastern Turkestan. He studied in India under the famous Buddhists of the time, learing Old Indian literature, astronomy, and mathematics. From 383 to 413 he lived in China, where he preached Buddhism. Kumarajiva’s literary legacy numbers several hundred works, including translations into Chinese of Buddhist religious and philosophical books, commentaries on the works, translations of Old Indian literature, original treatises on Buddhism, and biographies of Old Indian poets.

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References in periodicals archive ?
De hecho en la dinastia Tang, los cuatro grandes traductores budistas Kumarajiva [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (344-413), Paramartha [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (499-569), Hvenasamga [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (602-664) y Amoghavajra [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (705-774), se caracterizaron por sus diferentes estilos de interpretacion de las sutras.
In the early 5th century, Master Kumarajiva ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) (344-413) (2) arrived in China.
According to Richard Robinson, Sengzhao was "the crucial figure in the transmission of Kumarajiva's teaching in China," not only because he prefaced some of Kumarajiva's (334-413) most important translations, but also because he composed essays acclaimed by his contemporaries, including Kumarajiva and Huiyuan (334-416), that were transmitted generationally, and virtually canonized as constitutive of the new Three Treatise thought during the sixth century.
The great Kuchean Buddhist proselytizer Kumarajiva translated thousands of manuscripts from Sanskrit into Chinese, stimulating the dissemination of Buddhism in China.
Amituo jing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva in 402 CE) prefers to call him Amitayus, with only a few mentions of his luminous qualities.
3 (ANI): A three-day international seminar and exhibition to critically study and evaluate the contribution of Kumarajiva in enhancement of Indo-Chinese cultural relations and other related issues began here today under the aegis of Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts.
Tagore made indelible contributions to the annals of Sino-Indian cultural intercourse, and his contributions were even comparable to those made by the pioneers like Kumarajiva, Bodhidharma, Paramartha, Amoghavajra, Vivekananda as well as Faxian, Xuanzang, and Yijing.
At the persistence of Yao Xing, ruler of the later Qin, the sutra-translating pioneer Kumarajiva was brought from Liangzhou to Changan at the dawn of the fifth century.
The final translation, by Kumarajiva at the beginning of the fifth century, survives as part of the modern Chinese Buddhist canon.
Although most of these texts are extremely difficult to date, it is well known that one of the earliest, the Sanskrit Maitreyavyakarana and its Khotanese recension, the Maitreyasamiti, which is part of the Anagatavasa, was translated into Chinese by Dharmaraksha (265-316) as early as the 3rd century CE, by Kumarajiva (384-417) one century later, and again by Yixing around 701 CE.
Following his beloved teacher, the famed visiting Indian monk Kumarajiva, Zhao avails himself of the rich tradition of Daoist and Buddhist philosophies, particularly of the Mahayana tradition of Nagarjuna, the most crucial and widely studied founder of Madhyamaka, which is a skeptical and dialectical analytic philosophy.
13) "From 401 until 413, the Indian Buddhist Monk, Kumarajiva, brought Buddhism in China where he went to Chang'an, the current city of X'ian in the province of Shaanxi at the request of its ruler, Yao Xing of the Later Qin.