the conventional name of the culture of Transcaucasian tribes of the early Bronze Age (third millennium B.C.) given by the Soviet archaeologist B. A. Kuftin on the basis of the first remains discovered in the basins of the Kura and Araks rivers. The Kura-Araks Aeneolithic was also widespread in east Anatolia, Dagestan, Chechen-Ingushetia and, partly, northern Ossetia. Throughout its entire range of distribution, the Kura-Araks Aeneolithic exhibits cultural similarities. It is characterized by permanent settlements with a unique style of architecture (round and rectangular houses), polished ceramics with spiral-concentric and carved geometric designs in relief, and movable clay hearths and supports. Farming and stock raising were the foundation of the economy of the Kura-Araks Aeneolithic tribes that were moving toward a patriarchal stage in their development. The metallurgy of bronze and metalworking were being developed. The ties between the Kura-Araks Aeneolithic and the civilizations of Asia Minor and the Maikop culture of the northern Caucasus have been established.
REFERENCESKuftin, B. A. “Urartskii ‘kolumbarii’ u podoshvy Ararata i Kuro-arakskii eneolit.” Vestnik Gos. Muzeia Gruzii, vol. 13—V.Tbilisi, 1944.
Dzhaparidze, O. M. K istorii gruzinskikh plemen na rannei stadii mednobronzovoi kul’tury. Tbilisi, 1961. (In Georgian; summary in Russian.)
Munchaev, R. M. Drevneishaia kul’tura Severo-Vostochnogo Kavkaza. Moscow, 1961.
R. M. MUNCHAEV