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language belonging to the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. See Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the language of the Kurds living in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and other countries (Afghanistan, Lebanon, USSR). In the USSR, Kurdish is spoken by approximately 90,000 people (1970, census); in other countries, according to varying approximate estimates (1971), there are 7.5 to 12 million Kurdish speakers.

Kurdish belongs to the western group of Iranian languages. The most important Kurdish dialects are Kirmanji (northwestern dialect, spoken by the majority of Kurds) and Sorani (southeastern dialect); smaller dialects are Gorani, Luri, Zaza.

Kurdish has 30 consonant phonemes and nine vowel phonemes—/a/, /e/, /Ə/, /i/, /Ə /,/I/, /o/, /u/, and /Ü /—which have reduced-nonreduced opposition. There is opposition of aspirated and unaspirated voiceless occlusives (stops). Stress is dynamic. Kurdish has three cases: direct, oblique, and vocative (remnants). There are definite and indefinite articles and subject and object conjugations.

The first known Kurdish literary work was written in script derived from Arabic writing (11–12th centuries). Kurdish writing systems exist in Iraq (an Arabic-based script) and in the USSR (an Armenian-based script from 1921 to 1929, a Romanbased alphabet from 1929 to 1946, and a Russian-based alphabet since 1946).


Bakaev, Ch. Kh. Govor kurdov Turkmenii. Moscow, 1962.
Bakaev, Ch. Kh. Kurdsko-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1957.
Kurdoev, K. K. Grammatika kurdskogo iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1957.
Kurdoev, K. K. Kurdskii iazyk. Moscow, 1961.
Kurdoev, K. K. Kurdsko-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1960.
Farizov, I. O. Russko-kurdskii slovar’. Moscow, 1957.
Tsukerman, I. I. Ocherki kurdskoi grammatiki. Moscow, 1962.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In line with contemporary critical trends in gender studies, Kurdi claims that by representing Irish women as sexually liberated, violent and agnostic, who care for no man or religion, Carr and other contemporary female artists manage to free their female characters from "the traditional masculine narrative of nation building" (41).
Kurdi said the latest two projects maintain JPMC's competitive edge in a changing global market where new producers like Saudi Arabia and Peru were expected to bring a surge of supply soon.
Judge McDonald granted the request, ruling that there simply was not enough credible evidence against Al Kurdi to continue.
Maria Kurdi discusses each play with great empathy and sensitivity.
With the seizure of Tal al-Sawan and Tal Kurdi, the Syrian army and its allies are to storm al-Shifouniyeh and al-Reihan to pave the ground for the eventual capture of Jeish al-Islam's main stronghold.
On Thursday (18 February, 2016), Australian artist Missy Higgins released a single called "Oh Canada" as a tribute to the deceased, which describes the Kurdi family's tragic journey fleeing Syria.
Aylan's father, Abdullah Kurdi, joined Alabash and Alfrhad on trial Thursday but did not appear in court.
Three-year-old Aylan Kurdi drowned along with his 5-year-old brother, Galip, and their mother, Rehan, after a boat loaded with refugees capsized trying to reach the Greek island of Kos in early September.
The day before images of her nephew Aylan Kurdi's lifeless body washed up on a Turkish beach had stirred the world's conscience into finally acting on what is a horrific humanitarian disaster.
A photograph of the body of one of the toddlers, 3-year-old Aylan Kurdi, washed up on the shore, appeared in newspapers around the world this week, prompting sympathy and outrage at the perceived inaction of developed nations in helping refugees.
Majority shareholder and chairman Semore Kurdi confirmed the news at a fans' forum event, promising that the opposition would be no lower than top-flight level and that the games would not be friendlies.
Hekmati's brother-in-law, Ramy Kurdi, told The Associated Press in an interview, "He needs to come home." Hekmati's father is dying of cancer and Kurdi says, "Every day matters.