Kwame Nkrumah


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Nkrumah, Kwame

(kwä`mā nkro͞o`mä), 1909–72, African political leader, prime minister (1957–60) and president (1960–66) of Ghana. The son of a goldsmith, he was educated at mission schools in the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and became a teacher. A brilliant student, he studied (1935–45) in the United States and then went to London. While studying law there he held important posts in African nationalist organizations, espousing Pan-AfricanismPan-Africanism,
general term for various movements in Africa that have as their common goal the unity of Africans and the elimination of colonialism and white supremacy from the continent.
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. Returning to the Gold Coast in 1947, he was made general secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention party by its founder, Dr. J. B. Danquah, who was later jailed by Nkrumah. In 1949, Nkrumah formed his own party, the Convention People's party, and led a series of strikes and boycotts for self-government. He was imprisoned (1950) by the British for sedition, but was released in 1951 when his party swept the general election; he became prime minister in 1952. Under his leadership the Gold Coast achieved (1957) independence and, in 1960, became the Republic of Ghana. Probably the leading proponent of pan-Africanism, he effected a loose union with Guinea (1959) and Mali (1960). Following a course of international political neutrality, he secured economic and technical aid from the United States and the Soviet Union. As president, Nkrumah suppressed political opponents, and in 1961, after a series of strikes, made himself supreme commander of the armed forces; he also assumed absolute control of the Convention People's party. Several attempts were made on his life. He increasingly isolated himself from the populace, meanwhile promoting a cult of personality. In 1966, while he was on a trip to Beijing, his government was overthrown. He subsequently took refuge in Guinea.

Bibliography

See his autobiography (1957); biographies by G. Marais (1972), B. Davidson (1974), and D. Kellner (1987).

Nkrumah, Kwame

 

Born Sept. 21, 1909, in Nkroful, Gold Coast; died Apr. 27, 1972. Figure in the African national liberation movement; founder and first president of the Republic of Ghana.

The son of a jewelry-maker, Nkrumah graduated from a teachers college in Accra in 1930 and became a teacher. From 1935 to 1945 he lived in the United States, where he graduated from Lincoln University and the University of Pennsylvania; while in the USA he also lectured on philosophy. Between 1945 and 1947 he lived in Great Britain, where he became actively involved in the movement for national liberation of the peoples of Africa. In 1947, having returned to his homeland, he became general secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention. In 1949 he founded the Convention People’s Party, which led the liberation struggle against the English colonialists.

Imprisoned during 1950–51 by the English colonial authorities, Nkrumah became head of the first African government of the Gold Coast in 1952 and served as prime minister of Ghana from 1957, when the country’s independence was proclaimed. In 1960 he also assumed the presidency of Ghana. As a result of a military coup, he was removed from the presidency in 1966. Nkrumah’s final years were spent in exile in Guinea. In 1961 he was awarded the International Lenin Prize For Strengthening Peace Between Nations. He received honorary doctorates from the universities of Moscow, Cairo, and Kraków, among others.

WORKS

In Russian translation:
Avtobiografiia. Moscow, 1961.
Ia govoriu o svobode: Izlozhenie afrikanskoi ideologii. Moscow, 1962.
Afrika dolzhna ob’edinit’sia. Moscow, 1964.
References in periodicals archive ?
My father said Kwame Nkrumah himself was carrying the umbrella behind the Queen," (https://www.
The 2nd Kwame Nkrumah Pan-African Intellectual & Cultural Festival was hosted by the Kwame Nkrumah Chair in African Studies under the auspices of the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana from 25th June to 1st July 2017.
Nana Mensa Bonsu, a professor at Kwame Nkrumah University, said: "Professor Edwards has consistently demonstrated great leadership and commitment to inspire staff and students.
Nana Mensa Bonsu, a professor at Kwame Nkrumah University, said: "Professor Edwards has always given his time generously and tirelessly and has assisted colleagues to improve upon their personal development and academic profile.
beaucoup moins que] Le programme du Prix Kwame Nkrumah est un programme phare de notre Union qui vise a sensibiliser davantage a l'utilisation de la Science et de la Technologie sur notre continent [beaucoup plus grand que], a-t-elle ajoute.
He has a Bachelor of Pharmacy degree from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology ha Kumasi, Ghana.
Even before Ghana gained its independence in 1957, the country's first president, Kwame Nkrumah, began pushing the idea of pan-Africanism.
Since Ghana won independence in 1960, three of its presidents have been alumni of the London School of Economics, including Kwame Nkrumah, a man Mandela himself saw as iconic.
beaucoup moins que]L'histoire a retenu que du 3 au 7 janvier 1961, a l'invitation du Roi Mohamed V du Maroc, cinq leaders de pays independants d'Afrique se sont reunis a Casablanca, pour former le groupe dit de Casablanca: Kwame Nkrumah du Ghana, Jamal Abdel Nasser d'Egypte, Modibo Keita, du Mali, Sekou Toure de Guinee, et bien sur Mohammed V du Maroc[beaucoup plus grand que], pour adopter et proclamer a l'issue de leurs travaux, [beaucoup moins que]la Charte Africaine de Casablanca[beaucoup plus grand que].
The revised edition of Kwame Nkrumah s Contribution to Pan-Africanism: An Afrocentric Analysis by Zizwe Poe demonstrates an unprecedented critical and meticulous analysis both of Kwame Nkrumah's political vision and of the idea of Pan-Africanism, which encompasses African/African American history, politics, and sociology.
Young Malians marched to Kwame Nkrumah Square in Bamako hoisting banners reading: "Do not touch my government.
The launch coincided with the 103rd birthday celebration of Ghana's first President, Dr Kwame Nkrumah, on 21st September.