Kwantung


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Related to Kwantung: Kwantung garrison, Kanto Army

Kwantung

 

a Peninsula in northeastern China; the southwestern tip of the Laotung Peninsula. Area, about 3,500 sq km. The relief is mostly hilly, with individual ridges of up to 663 m. The shores are very jagged, and bays (Kwantung, Talienwan) and harbors are plentiful. The ice-free ports of Dairen (Dal’nii) and Lüshum (Port Arthur) are located on Kwantung.

Kwantung was conquered by the Han Dynasty in the second century B.C. For a long time (until the seventh century A.D.) it was part of the state of Koguryo, and from the eighth through the 12th centuries it belonged to various states that existed on the territory of Manchuria and northern China. In the 13th through the 15th centuries it belonged to the Yuan and Ming empires, and in the 16th century it was conquered by the Manchus, who established their rule throughout China in the mid-17th century. Under the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895), Kwantung was ceded to Japan but was soon returned to China under pressure from Russia, France, and Germany. In 1898, under a convention that Russia concluded with China, the territory of Kwantung was leased to Russia for 25 years. After the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, under the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). the leasing rights to Kwantung were turned over to Japan. In 1923, when the lease under the 1898 convention expired, Japan refused to return Kwantung to China. The Kwantung Army—Japanese troops stationed in Kwantung—occupied Manchuria in 1931. In August 1945. Kwantung was liberated from the Japanese occupiers by the armed forces of the USSR and was turned over to China.

V. P. ILIUSHECHKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The Kwantung match was tough with the hosts determined to turn Albion over on their last game on Chinese soil - or, rather, rough pasture.
He was charged with violations of the notorious Article 58 of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic's Penal Code, being told that ''Having worked as a translator at the Kwantung Army headquarters, you must be a person of high ability.
1, Phenix Village Kwantung (New York: Bureau of Publications, Columbia University 1925), 53.
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In 1935, Nomoto, a native of the southwestern prefecture of Kagoshima, traveled to Manchuria and was posted at a division of the Japanese Kwantung Army as a Mongolian language research student.
The manipulators, survivors of the zaibatsu Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Yasuda and Iwasaki, and the upstart Nissan, were the very people who before Japan's Kwantung Army occupation of the railway zone in Manchuria, on 18 September 1931, began systematically to pillage Korea and Manchuria, then China and their neighbours in South-East Asia.
Wilson 2107 (A); Kwantung, Tsengshing, Nwaam Kwan Shan, W.
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The Japanese Kwantung Army physicians conducted identical human experimentation, torture, and murder of prisoners in Manchuria and China proper between 1932 and 1945, but no similar trial exposed their crimes against humanity.
If I may raise one minor quibble with a very well-composed piece of work, it is that many readers will no doubt be left curious for more details about how the Russian community fared after the Kwantung Army took Manchuria by force in 1931 and brought the SD experiment to a close.
On that night 77 years ago, Japan's Kwantung Army exploded a bomb on the rails of the South Manchurian Railway, a Japanese enterprise, at Liutiaogou, just north of Mukden (now Shenyang), and blamed Chinese troops for the blast.
16), and there is one consistent misspelling (the Japanese Kwantung Army appears as a similarly spelled southern Chinese province).