Kwantung


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Related to Kwantung: Kwantung garrison, Kanto Army

Kwantung

 

a Peninsula in northeastern China; the southwestern tip of the Laotung Peninsula. Area, about 3,500 sq km. The relief is mostly hilly, with individual ridges of up to 663 m. The shores are very jagged, and bays (Kwantung, Talienwan) and harbors are plentiful. The ice-free ports of Dairen (Dal’nii) and Lüshum (Port Arthur) are located on Kwantung.

Kwantung was conquered by the Han Dynasty in the second century B.C. For a long time (until the seventh century A.D.) it was part of the state of Koguryo, and from the eighth through the 12th centuries it belonged to various states that existed on the territory of Manchuria and northern China. In the 13th through the 15th centuries it belonged to the Yuan and Ming empires, and in the 16th century it was conquered by the Manchus, who established their rule throughout China in the mid-17th century. Under the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895), Kwantung was ceded to Japan but was soon returned to China under pressure from Russia, France, and Germany. In 1898, under a convention that Russia concluded with China, the territory of Kwantung was leased to Russia for 25 years. After the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, under the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). the leasing rights to Kwantung were turned over to Japan. In 1923, when the lease under the 1898 convention expired, Japan refused to return Kwantung to China. The Kwantung Army—Japanese troops stationed in Kwantung—occupied Manchuria in 1931. In August 1945. Kwantung was liberated from the Japanese occupiers by the armed forces of the USSR and was turned over to China.

V. P. ILIUSHECHKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Officers of the Kwantung Army, responding to an apparent lack of their own government's interest in protecting the lives of Japanese civilians in Manchuria, and elsewhere in China, and the growing Communist menace, commenced to "seize" Manchuria in 1931 (the so-called "Mukden" or "Manchuria" Incident).
Communist China used arms and techonological means in the late 1940s that were predominantly trophy goods, left behind by the Japanese Kwantung Army, the Guomindang army, and colonial police forces.
Froyim Gelman, radioman of a Red Army artillery unit, recalled a battle where "each gun was taken by a Dodge 3/4[-ton] truck, and we had some Studebakers to move the ammunition." The rapid defeat of Japan's Kwantung Army let the Soviets claim territory in China and Korea, planting new seeds of conflict.
No revision is required to speak about the enormous Soviet contribution to defeating Nazi Germany, but it will be tempting to gloss over the fact that after a Soviet force had crushed the Japanese Kwantung army in the battle of Khalkin Gol, May through September 1939, a neutrality pact was negotiated and signed by the USSR and Japan on April 13, 1941, shortly before the German invasion of the USSR.
Almost 90 documents from the archives of the military police corps - part of Japan's Kwantung army, the occupying force that propped up a puppet regime in Manchuria in the early 1930s - include letters from Japanese soldiers, newspaper articles and military files discovered in the 1950s and kept at the Jilin provincial archives in north-east China.
1984 'Colonialism and Economic Development: Korea, Taiwan, and Kwantung", in: Ramon H.
In China, they beat Peking (3-1 in front of 80,000 as Ally Brown scored two and Cyrille Regis one), the China national team 2-0 (Brown and Cyrille Regis), Shanghai 2-0 (Regis and Laurie Cunningham) and Kwantung Province 6-0 (Regis 2, Cunningham, Wile, Mick Martin and Tony Brown).
Where the mushroom clouds over Hiroshima and Nagasaki signaled the end-point of the path chosen by the young officers of the Kwantung Army in the 1930s, the chaos and apocalyptic apprehension of post-quake and tsunami Fukushima in 2011 is the end-point of the path chosen by senior state bureaucrats and their corporate and political collaborators in the 1950s and steadily, incrementally, reinforced ever since then.
By 207 BC, Chao T'o, a Ch'in general, was able to establish a Chinese southern state that commanded the Kwantung and Kwangsi Provinces, and the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam.
The Tonkinese sub-species (Gallus gallus jabouillei) is found in North Vietnam (Tonkin), the extreme southeast of Yunnan, Kwangsi, Kwantung and Hainan.