Chania

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Chania

, Hania
the chief port of Crete, on the NW coast. Pop.: 82 000 (2005 est.)
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(96) On the map Kydonia is represented by a three-tower symbol, indicative of its possession of one or more harbors.
It gives the distance from Apteran Kisamos to Kydonia as Roman miles (11.84 km) and that from Apteran Kisamos to Lappa as 9 Roman miles (13.32 km).
The mileage figure provided by the new milestone, the evidence of Roman road-building practices, bridges and river crossings in the Cretan landscape, the route taken by Robert Pashley in 1834, and an unpublished Latin inscription from Mousela Episkopis (Hydramia, modern Dramia) all combine to improve our knowledge of the segment of the Roman route between Kydonia and Lappa.
For the point from which the mileage figureure on the new milestone is measured, we suggest Aptera's port at Kisamos, explicitly placed between Kydonia and Lappa in the tabula Peutingeriana.
(111) Instead, the principal Roman road followed the coast from Kydonia to Apteran Kisamos, while preexisting branch roads were used to reach the elevated civic center from the west, east, and south.
The route from Chania eastward followed by Pashley in 1834 appears to illustrate the most convenient way, ancient or modern, to proceed from ancient Kydonia to Aptera and Lappa (Fig.
To sum up: the new milestone from the southern town zone of Aptera is useful not only for confirming the route of the Roman road from Kydonia to Lappa, which led through the Apokoronas plain rather than over Hippokoronion, but also for suggesting the extent of the city's hinterland.
(141) Distances along this articulated road may have been calculated in the form of measurements between principal turning points or junctions, as the road wound its way westward to the environs of modern Timbaki, north through the Sybrita corridor to the plain of Rhithymna, west to Amphimalla and modern Vrysses, north again through the Apokoronas plain, then westward along the coast from Kydonia past the base of Cape Tityros to Polyrrhenian Kisamos, where it turned south again to Kantanos and Lissos (Fig.
We have already suggested that the new Trajanic milestone indicates the number of Roman miles between its findspot and Apteran Kisamos, where the road turned to run west along the north coast of the island to Kydonia and Polyrrhenian Kisamos.
(146) The main Roman road, on the other hand, followed the coast westward from Kydonia and cut across the base of Cape Tityros to reach Kisamos, which lay at a critical turning point in the route that led southward to Kantanos and Lissos.
(152) Along the way there were other inland road stations too, which may have included (but were not limited to) those whose names are preserved in the tabula Peutingeriana: Gortyn and Sybrita, as well as Lappa, Kydonia, and Kantanos.
It allows us to compare the differing roles of Trajan and Hadrian in the development of the road network of western Crete, improves our understanding of the principles that determined the placement of Roman milestones, and provides further evidence for the course of the ancient route between Kydonia and Lappa.